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An Interview with Professor Randall Engle: Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Emory Medical School; Professional Fellow, Psychology, University of Edinburgh; Principle Investigator, Attention and Working Memory Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology; Director, GSU/GT Center for Advanced Brain Imaging

May 22, 2016

Interviewer: Scott Douglas Jacobsen

Title: In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal

Place of Publication: Langley, British Columbia, Canada

Name of Publisher: In-Sight Publishing

Numbering: Issue 11.A, Idea: Outliers & Outsiders (Part Six)

Individual Publication Date: May 22, 2016 (2016-05-22)

Issue Publication Date: September 1, 2016 (2016-09-01)

Frequency: Three Times Per Year

Web Domain: www.in-sightjournal.com

Words: 4,070

ISSN 2369-6885

Professor Randall Engle.jpg

Abstract

An interview with Professor Randall Engle.  He discusses: early influence from university training, influences on educational and professional trajectory, and recommendations about exposure; patience and focus in mentorship from D.D. Wickens; most valuable experience; core domains of interest, interests in professional life, and greatest single problems at the moment; Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: a latent-variable approach (1999); cognitive neuroscience in research and fluid intelligence; brain training efficacy; awards and responsibilities; near and far future research; and advice for young psychological scientists.

Keywords: cognitive neuroscience, fluid intelligence, Randall Engle, psychology.

An Interview with Professor Randall Engle: Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Emory Medical School; Professional Fellow, Psychology, University of Edinburgh; Principle Investigator, Attention and Working Memory Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology; Director, GSU/GT Center for Advanced Brain Imaging[1],[2],[3]

*Please see the footnotes, bibliography, and citation style listing after the interview.*

1. You earned a BA at West Virginia State College (WVSC). Your lab and other biographies, and news venues, describe some experiences, expertise, selective background, and short reports on research, even a slice of a lecture.[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11]  One of salience, about WVSC, states:

State was a public all-black college prior to 1954. As a consequence, most of his faculty were outstanding scholars who could not get jobs at top universities. One of his psychology professors was a marvelously well-read scholar named Herman G. Canady, a 1929 Ph.D. from Northwestern and one of the first black ABEP’s. He worked his way through graduate school as a butler. Engle had a Harvard graduate for his math courses, a Yale Ph.D. as a drama teacher, and his French teacher was a black female who received her Ph.D. from the Sorbonne.[12] (Engle, 2014)

How did these early experiences in university training influence you?  How did these diversely-trained educators influence your educational and professional trajectory? Would you recommend this kind of exposure to others – or even improve upon it?

These experiences had a profound effect on my social and political philosophy and made me much more aware of the effects of racial, ethnic, and gender stereotypes. I would very much recommend these experiences to others and tried to re-create them for my own children.

2. Your biography indicates undergraduate training with inclusion of extensive hours in zoology and math in addition to psychology.[13],[14],[15],[16],[17] What funnelled interest into these disciplines?  How did these influence future psychological research overall?

Science always appealed to me and these experiences and interests have continued to the present day in my research.

3. You continued onward with education. You had admittance into Ohio State University for collaboration with D.D. Wickens.[18]  You note the variables to the man’s mentoring.  I want to take him as a case study in relation to you.  About his relation to yourself, you state:

He was admitted to Ohio State to work with D.D. Wickens. Wick was a wonderful mentor and was exceedingly patient with a student that wanted to do everything but did not focus on anything long enough to do it well.[19]

Besides patience and lack of focus, what variables existed with regards to his mentoring?  How did this impact you?

Wickens was a marvelous writer – in fact his master’s level work was in literature before he became interested in psychology.  He could write about complex scientific topics in clear and accessible prose and I tried to model that style of writing and I try to teach my own graduate students to write that way.

4. What were the most valuable experiences from these educational opportunities and times of varied intellectual experiences?

The most valuable experiences were the opportunities to engage in a wide range of research topics.

5. Your public statement of truncated research interests relate to three universes of discourse: 1) “nature and causes of limitations in working memory capacity,” 2) “role of those differences in real-world cognitive tasks,” and 3) “association of working memory capacity and cognitive control to fluid intelligence.” With respect to these three core areas of research, how do the relevant disciplines define these core domains of interest? When did these interests solidify in professional life to these tinctures? What are these areas greatest single problems, per each domain, at the moment?

They all are facets of the same issue: the role of human limitations in information processing and how that impacts real-world life.  That leads to issues of whether those limitations can be modified within the individual and how our environment can be modified to reduce the impact of those limitations.

6. According to Google Scholar, your most cited article, Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: a latent-variable approach (1999), had citation over one thousand times to date.[20],[21],[22] (now nearly 2200 times, Engle) In terms of the specifics in relation to the research career, an interview cannot suffice in complete comprehension of a long, varied, and deep career, which implicates the necessity of selective coverage.

To preface the co-authored paper, you studied 133 participants.[23] Each performed 11 memory tasks, 2 general fluid intelligence tests, and quantitative and verbal Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT).[24],[25]  Memory tasks thought to relate to short-term memory and others to working memory.  Structural equation models mean a family of tests intended to test a conceptual or theoretical model. In this 1998 instance, a conceptual or theoretical model of a common construct.  There exists a robust relation between working memory and fluid intelligence; a non-robust relation between short-term memory and fluid intelligence.  A difference of each abilities’ degree of relation with the intermediary association of fluid intelligence. 

Your summative argument in this article states the capacity for working memory and fluid intelligence equate to the ability to “keep a representation active” in spite of distraction or interference.  Following, or in addition to, this, you connect this argument to “controlled attention” and the prefrontal cortex.  Where does the development of this separation between working memory and short-term memory stand 16 years past the original publication?

We are well beyond that separation and I am interested in just what the relationship between those two ideas is.  I expect it may be different at different developmental and ability levels with simple storage of information being more important with younger individuals and with individuals with lower cognitive abilities.

7. I talked to Dr. Anthony Greenwald over dinner a few years ago. At the time of the conversation, he considered cognitive neuroscience the future.  I paraphrase him:

The frontier lies in cognitive psychology and neuroscience.  However, a first generation of researchers, like the first round of soldiers marching out of the trenches, will fall – making all the necessary mistakes.  After that point, the next generation of researchers will have learned from those mistakes to make deep progress. 

Of course, his research functions out of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and other areas.[26],[27] Does cognitive neuroscience take a larger role in this research at present compared to the past?  What about fluid intelligence (Gf) research at large?

Yes, it plays a very large role in our work.  The mind is what the brain does.  That means that ultimately we need to understand the two in connection with one another – neither can be understood on its own.  Fluid intelligence is, at this point, a largely statistical entity.  I am now trying to understand the mechanisms underlying fluid intelligence (Gf) and how those are related to and different from the mechanisms underlying working memory capacity (WMC).  I have a recently accepted paper that argues that while WMC and Gf are hugely correlated (.6-.8), they are different.  The tasks that we use to reflect WMC emphasize maintenance of information while the tasks used to measure Gf, such as Ravens and number series, emphasize the disengagement from previously attended to information.  The two mechanisms are therefore contradictory to one another. They are highly correlated because both rely on limited capacity attention control or executive attention to complete.  This is THE mechanism that is responsible for the correlation.  When that is measured and statistically removed from the WMC-Gf relationship, the relationship goes to near zero.

8. One can find claims of cognitive improvement programs while some report the more accurate, unfortunate, truths about “brain training” programs, even in numerous mainstream news venues, academic reports, and official consensus statements from the scientific community devoted to professional research into these domains.[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34],[35],[36],[37],[38],[39] Collation and reportage from numerous venues contrary to the common advertising claims about the improvement of things such as fluid intelligence by the improvement of working memory. Brain training programs remain popular, and, apparently, highly hyped.  One article, entitled Does Brain Training Work?, with a partial quote from you, states:

Psychologist Randall Engle’s group at Georgia Tech has previously shown that working memory capacity is highly correlated with complex learning, problem solving, and general attention control. But he pointed out that this correlation does not mean that by increasing working memory capacity, fluid intelligence can be increased. “This idea that intelligence can be trained would be a great thing if it were true,” Engle said.[40] (Olena, 2014)

Therein lies the issue of brain training giving the appearance of promise for improvements in general cognitive function, but these persist in failure to replicate in practice or actuality.  In that, the apparent advertisements en masse do not have proportional empirical support.  Even some of the research from Susanne M. Jaeggi et al appears to provide some evidence in line with certain, specialized cognitive training tasks improving Gf, the research came out about the use of a dual n-back task for the improvement of fluid intelligence.[41],[42],[43],[44]  You attempted to replicate and failed to accomplish this.  What does this mean for “brain training” programs?  What about training the mind by other means?  What tasks, activities, and lifestyle approaches might, or do, delay the onset of cognitive declines or even improve cognitive ability? Does crystallized, fluid, or general intelligence remain mostly influenced by inborn ability, genetic endowment, and innate biological capacity, and minimally influenced by environment, parenting and upbringing, and educational interventions – especially as whole additions of age are taken into account?

Brain training programs work to improve the tasks used during training be the evidence is quite compelling that the training does not generalize to tasks other than those used during training or tasks very much like them.  Crystallized intelligence is everything you have learned and the amount and type of information you know is a result of many things including your fluid intelligence at the time you learned it but also motivational factors and what interests you – that is what draws your attention.

9. You continue to earn awards for teaching including the Ace Teacher Award, the Amoco Award for University Teacher of the Year, the Mortar Board Excellence in Teaching Award, the South Carolina Governor’s Professor of the Year, Distinguished Honors College Professor, as well as recognition through the first APA Division 3 Lifetime Achievement Award.[45],[46],[47],[48],[49],[50],[51]What place do you see for awards for academics?  What further duties and responsibilities does the recognition of accomplishments entail to you?

Awards are nice indicators that someone has recognized your work.  I have never met a teacher who does what they do best just to win awards however.  Awards are like dessert after a nice meal.

10. For more information and publications, individuals with the desire can reference the publications listing within the lab website or connect with the appropriate research databases for further information.[52],[53],[54],[55],[56] This interview provides partial, incomplete, and personal rather than majority academic information. What research do you intend to conduct in the near and far future? 

I mentioned that I am now interested in the psychological and brain mechanisms underlying WMC and Gf.  That will involve substantial psychometric as well as brain imaging work.  As I approach retirement age, I am quite amazed that I continue to be as interested in these questions as I ever was and I expect that I will continue trying to answer them, and the questions that arise from the research into those questions, as long as I have the financial resources necessary to run a lab such as mine.

11. In the FABBS foundation description of you, it states:

We also honor Randy for his tireless mentoring of the next generation of psychological scientists. While he has spearheaded the enormously influential research described above, he has also mentored (with similar care and pride to parenting his two now-grown children, Holly and Matt) a long line of grateful undergraduates, graduate students and post-docs, many of whom have gone on to considerable scientific and pedagogical success in cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, quantitative methods, and beyond, teaching and conducting psychological research as faculty members at a remarkably diverse, multi-national collection of institutions, such as Indiana University-Purdue University Columbus, Kenyon College, Maryville College, Michigan State University, Princeton University, University of Burgundy, University of California at Irvine, University of Denver, University of Edinburgh, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, University of Oregon, University of Texas at San Antonio, University of Ulm, Washington University, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Winthrop University, and Wichita State University.[57] 

In conclusion for this interview, and based upon the extensive level of mentoring over the decades by yourself for the upcoming generations of psychological scientists, what advice seems the best as a general algorithm, heuristic, rule of thumb, or principle for young psychological scientists in training?

Find a question that really intrigues you and pursue it with passion.  Publications, tenure, promotions, etc will all follow that but they should not be the raison d’etra for what you do.

Bibliography

  1. [GTtower] (2014). Dr. Randall Engle – Fall 2013 URK. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/82132468.
  2. Association for Psychological Science (2013, October 8). ‘Brain Training’ May Boost Working Memory, But Not Intelligence. Retrieved from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/brain-training-may-boost-working-memory-but-not-intelligence.html.
  3. Association for Psychological Science (2015, May 8). New Research From Psychological Science. Retrieved from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/new-research-from-psychological-science-107.html.
  4. Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Attention and Working Memory Lab. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/.
  5. Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Curriculum Vita: Randall W. Engle, School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/cvs/rengle_cv-13.pdf.
  6. Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Primary Investigator. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/randallengle.html.
  7. Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Publications. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/publications.html.
  8. Azvolinski, A. (2014, November). Mind Games: The Truth About Brain-Fitness Programs. Retrieved from http://www.consumersdigest.com/special-reports/mind-games-the-truth-about-brain-fitness-programs/view-all.
  9. Barker, C.B. (2014, October 20). Scientific evidence does not support the brain game claims, Stanford scholars say. Retrieved from http://news.stanford.edu/news/2014/october/brain-games-carstensen-102014.html.
  10. Buschkuehl, M., Hernandez-Garcia, L., Jaeggi, S. M., Bernard, J. A., & Jonides, J. (2014). Neural effects of short-term training on working memory. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience14(1), 147-160. doi:10.3758/s13415-013-0244-9
  11. Cameron, S. (2015). Brain Training Not All It’s Cracked Up To Be. Retrieved from http://singularityhub.com/tag/randall-engle/.
  12. Engle, R. (2014). Randy. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/Randy.html.
  13. Engle, R., Tuholski, S.W., Laughlin, J.E., & Conway, A.R. (1999). Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: a latent-variable approach. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/1999/working-memory2c-short3dterm-memory2c-and-general-fluid-intelligence.pdf.
  14. FABBS Foundation (2015). In Honor Of…Randall W. Engle. Retrieved from http://www.fabbs.org/index.php?cID=641.
  15. Georgia Institute of Technology (2015). Randall W. Engle. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.gatech.edu/people/faculty/engle_randy.php.
  16. Google Scholar (2015). Randall W. Engle. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.ca/citations?user=irWRyqcAAAAJ&hl=en.
  17. Griffith-Greene, M. (2015, April 10). Brain training games: No proof they prevent cognitive decline. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/m/news/health/brain-training-games-no-proof-they-prevent-cognitive-decline-1.3025212.
  18. Hareer, S. (2015, April 10). Forget Brain Training – Do This For Your Memory Instead. Retrieved from http://www.safebee.com/health/forget-brain-training-do-your-memory-instead.
  19. Harvard University (2015). Project Implicit. Retrieved from http://implicit.harvard.edu/.
  20. human intelligence. (2015). InEncyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289766/human-intelligence.
  21. Interdisciplinary Centre for Applied Cognitive Sciences (2015). Engle Randall W., Ph.D.. Retrieved from http://www.icacs.swps.edu.pl/icacs/pl/members-2/wspolpracownicy-zagraniczni/176-engle-randall-w-ph-d..
  22. (2015). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289799/IQ.
  23. Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Perrig, W. J. (2008). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America105(19), 6829-6833. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801268105
  24. Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Shah, P. (2011). Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training. PNAS Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America108(25), 10081-10086. doi:10.1073/pnas.1103228108
  25. Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Shah, P., & Jonides, J. (2014). The role of individual differences in cognitive training and transfer. Memory & Cognition42(3), 464-480. doi:10.3758/s13421-013-0364-z
  26. Koenig, R. (2014, October 22). Brain-Training Companies Get Advice From Some Academics, Criticism From Others. Retrieved from http://m.chronicle.com/article/Brain-Training-Companies-Get/149555/.
  27. Max Planck Institute for Human Development (2014, October 20). A Consensus on Brain Training from the Scientific Community. Retrieved from http://longevity3.stanford.edu/blog/2014/10/15/the-consensus-on-the-brain-training-industry-from-the-scientific-community-2/.
  28. Myers, D. (2015, May 8). Does Video Game-Playing Sharpen Mental Skills and Speed?. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/talk-psych/201505/does-video-game-playing-sharpen-mental-skills-and-speed.
  29. Olena, A. (2014, April 21). Does Brain Training Work?. Retrieved from http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/39768/title/Does-Brain-Training-Work-/.
  30. psychological testing. (2015). InEncyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/481664/psychological-testing.
  31. Research Gate (2015). Randall Engle. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Randall_Engle.
  32. Underwood, E. (2014, October 22). Neuroscientists speak out against brain game hype. Retrieved from http://news.sciencemag.org/brain-behavior/2014/10/neuroscientists-speak-out-against-brain-game-hype.
  33. University of Edinburgh (2015). University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from http://www.ed.ac.uk/home.
  34. University of Edinburgh (2015). University of Edinburgh: Department of Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.psy.ed.ac.uk/.
  35. University of Edinburgh (2015). University of Edinburgh: Prof Randall Engle. Retrieved from http://www.ppls.ed.ac.uk/people/randall-engle.
  36. University of Washington (2015). Anthony G. Greenwald, PhD. Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/agg/.
  37. Weir, K. (2014, October). Mind Games: Can brain-training games keep your mind young?. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/10/mind-games.aspx.

Appendix I: Footnotes

[1] Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Emory Medical School; Professional Fellow, Psychology, University of Edinburgh; Principle Investigator, Attention and Working Memory Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology; Director, GSU/GT Center for Advanced Brain Imaging.

[2] Individual Publication Date: May 22, 2016 at www.in-sightjournal.com/an-interview-with-professor-randell-engle-adjunct-professor-psychiatry-emory-medical-school-professional-fellow-psychology-university-of-edinburgh-principle-investigator-attention-and-working; Full Issue Publication Date: September 1, 2016 at https://in-sightjournal.com/insight-issues/.

[3] PhD, Ohio State University; MA, Ohio State University; BA, West Virginia.

[4]  Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Primary Investigator. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/randallengle.html.

[5]  Georgia Institute of Technology (2015). Randall W. Engle. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.gatech.edu/people/faculty/engle_randy.php.

[6]  University of Edinburgh (2015). University of Edinburgh: Prof Randall Engle. Retrieved from http://www.ppls.ed.ac.uk/people/randall-engle.

[7]  FABBS Foundation (2015). In Honor Of…Randall W. Engle. Retrieved from http://www.fabbs.org/index.php?cID=641.

[8]  Association for Psychological Science (2013, October 8). ‘Brain Training’ May Boost Working Memory, But Not Intelligence. Retrieved from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/brain-training-may-boost-working-memory-but-not-intelligence.html.

[9]  [GTtower] (2014). Dr. Randall Engle – Fall 2013 URK. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/82132468.

[10]  Research Gate (2015). Randall Engle. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Randall_Engle.

[11]  Interdisciplinary Centre for Applied Cognitive Sciences (2015). Engle Randall W., Ph.D.. Retrieved from http://www.icacs.swps.edu.pl/icacs/pl/members-2/wspolpracownicy-zagraniczni/176-engle-randall-w-ph-d..

[12]  Engle, R. (2014). Randy. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/Randy.html.

[13]  Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Primary Investigator. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/randallengle.html.

[14]  Georgia Institute of Technology (2015). Randall W. Engle. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.gatech.edu/people/faculty/engle_randy.php.

[15]  University of Edinburgh (2015). University of Edinburgh: Prof Randall Engle. Retrieved from http://www.ppls.ed.ac.uk/people/randall-engle.

[16]  FABBS Foundation (2015). In Honor Of…Randall W. Engle. Retrieved from http://www.fabbs.org/index.php?cID=641.

[17]  Research Gate (2015). Randall Engle. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Randall_Engle.

[18]  Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Primary Investigator. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/randallengle.html.

[19]  Ibid.

[20]  Engle, R., Tuholski, S.W., Laughlin, J.E., & Conway, A.R. (1999). Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: a latent-variable approach. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/1999/working-memory2c-short3dterm-memory2c-and-general-fluid-intelligence.pdf.

[21]  Google Scholar (2015). Randall W. Engle. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.ca/citations?user=irWRyqcAAAAJ&hl=en.

[22]  IQ. (2015). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289799/IQ.

[23]  Engle, R., Tuholski, S.W., Laughlin, J.E., & Conway, A.R. (1999). Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: a latent-variable approach. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/1999/working-memory2c-short3dterm-memory2c-and-general-fluid-intelligence.pdf.

[24]  psychological testing. (2015). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/481664/psychological-testing.

[25]  human intelligence. (2015). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289766/human-intelligence.

[26]  University of Washington (2015). Anthony G. Greenwald, PhD. Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/agg/.

[27]  Harvard University (2015). Project Implicit. Retrieved from http://implicit.harvard.edu/.

[28]  Azvolinski, A. (2014, November). Mind Games: The Truth About Brain-Fitness Programs. Retrieved from http://www.consumersdigest.com/special-reports/mind-games-the-truth-about-brain-fitness-programs/view-all.

[29]  Hareer, S. (2015, April 10). Forget Brain Training – Do This For Your Memory Instead. Retrieved from http://www.safebee.com/health/forget-brain-training-do-your-memory-instead.

[30]  Weir, K. (2014, October). Mind Games: Can brain-training games keep your mind young?. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2014/10/mind-games.aspx.

[31]  Max Planck Institute for Human Development (2014, October 20). A Consensus on Brain Training from the Scientific Community. Retrieved from http://longevity3.stanford.edu/blog/2014/10/15/the-consensus-on-the-brain-training-industry-from-the-scientific-community-2/.

[32]  Myers, D. (2015, May 8). Does Video Game-Playing Sharpen Mental Skills and Speed?. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/talk-psych/201505/does-video-game-playing-sharpen-mental-skills-and-speed.

[33]  Cameron, S. (2015). Brain Training Not All It’s Cracked Up To Be. Retrieved from http://singularityhub.com/tag/randall-engle/.

[34]  Olena, A. (2014, April 21). Does Brain Training Work?. Retrieved from http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/39768/title/Does-Brain-Training-Work-/.

[35]  Griffith-Greene, M. (2015, April 10). Brain training games: No proof they prevent cognitive decline. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/m/news/health/brain-training-games-no-proof-they-prevent-cognitive-decline-1.3025212.

[36]  Underwood, E. (2014, October 22). Neuroscientists speak out against brain game hype. Retrieved from http://news.sciencemag.org/brain-behavior/2014/10/neuroscientists-speak-out-against-brain-game-hype.

[37]  Koenig, R. (2014, October 22). Brain-Training Companies Get Advice From Some Academics, Criticism From Others. Retrieved from http://m.chronicle.com/article/Brain-Training-Companies-Get/149555/.

[38]  Barker, C.B. (2014, October 20). Scientific evidence does not support the brain game claims, Stanford scholars say. Retrieved from http://news.stanford.edu/news/2014/october/brain-games-carstensen-102014.html.

[39]  Association for Psychological Science (2015, May 8). New Research From Psychological Science. Retrieved from http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/news/releases/new-research-from-psychological-science-107.html.

[40]  Olena, A. (2014, April 21). Does Brain Training Work?. Retrieved from http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/39768/title/Does-Brain-Training-Work-/.

[41]  Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Shah, P., & Jonides, J. (2014). The role of individual differences in cognitive training and transfer. Memory & Cognition42(3), 464-480. doi:10.3758/s13421-013-0364-z

[42]  Buschkuehl, M., Hernandez-Garcia, L., Jaeggi, S. M., Bernard, J. A., & Jonides, J. (2014). Neural effects of short-term training on working memory. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience14(1), 147-160. doi:10.3758/s13415-013-0244-9

[43]  Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Shah, P. (2011). Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training. PNAS Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America108(25), 10081-10086. doi:10.1073/pnas.1103228108

[44]  Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Perrig, W. J. (2008). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America105(19), 6829-6833. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801268105

[45]  Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Primary Investigator. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/randallengle.html.

[46]  Georgia Institute of Technology (2015). Randall W. Engle. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.gatech.edu/people/faculty/engle_randy.php.

[47]  University of Edinburgh (2015). University of Edinburgh: Prof Randall Engle. Retrieved from http://www.ppls.ed.ac.uk/people/randall-engle.

[48]  FABBS Foundation (2015). In Honor Of…Randall W. Engle. Retrieved from http://www.fabbs.org/index.php?cID=641.

[49]  Research Gate (2015). Randall Engle. Retrieved from http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Randall_Engle.

[50]  Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Primary Investigator. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/randallengle.html.

[51]  Ibid.

[52]  Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Publications. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/publications.html.

[53]  Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Attention and Working Memory Lab. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/.

[54]  Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Curriculum Vita: Randall W. Engle, School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/cvs/rengle_cv-13.pdf.

[55]  Attention and Working Memory Lab (2015). Primary Investigator. Retrieved from http://englelab.gatech.edu/randallengle.html.

[56]  Google Scholar (2015). Randall W. Engle. Retrieved from https://scholar.google.ca/citations?user=irWRyqcAAAAJ&hl=en.

[57]  FABBS Foundation (2015). In Honor Of…Randall W. Engle. Retrieved from http://www.fabbs.org/index.php?cID=641.

Appendix II: Citation Style Listing

American Medical Association (AMA): Jacobsen S. An Interview with Professor Randall Engle: Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Emory Medical School; Professional Fellow, Psychology, University of Edinburgh; Principle Investigator, Attention and Working Memory Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology; Director, GSU/GT Center for Advanced Brain Imaging [Online].May 2016; 11(A). Available from: www.in-sightjournal.com/an-interview-with-professor-randell-engle-adjunct-professor-psychiatry-emory-medical-school-professional-fellow-psychology-university-of-edinburgh-principle-investigator-attention-and-working.

American Psychological Association (APA, 6th Edition, 2010): Jacobsen, S.D. (2016, May 22). An Interview with Professor Randall Engle: Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Emory Medical School; Professional Fellow, Psychology, University of Edinburgh; Principle Investigator, Attention and Working Memory Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology; Director, GSU/GT Center for Advanced Brain ImagingRetrieved from www.in-sightjournal.com/an-interview-with-professor-randell-engle-adjunct-professor-psychiatry-emory-medical-school-professional-fellow-psychology-university-of-edinburgh-principle-investigator-attention-and-working.

Brazilian National Standards (ABNT): JACOBSEN, S. An Interview with Professor Randall Engle: Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Emory Medical School; Professional Fellow, Psychology, University of Edinburgh; Principle Investigator, Attention and Working Memory Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology; Director, GSU/GT Center for Advanced Brain ImagingIn-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 11.A, May. 2016. <www.in-sightjournal.com/an-interview-with-professor-randell-engle-adjunct-professor-psychiatry-emory-medical-school-professional-fellow-psychology-university-of-edinburgh-principle-investigator-attention-and-working>.

Chicago/Turabian, Author-Date (16th Edition): Jacobsen, Scott. 2016. “An Interview with Professor Randall Engle: Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Emory Medical School; Professional Fellow, Psychology, University of Edinburgh; Principle Investigator, Attention and Working Memory Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology; Director, GSU/GT Center for Advanced Brain Imaging.” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 11.A. www.in-sightjournal.com/an-interview-with-professor-randell-engle-adjunct-professor-psychiatry-emory-medical-school-professional-fellow-psychology-university-of-edinburgh-principle-investigator-attention-and-working.

Chicago/Turabian, Humanities (16th Edition): Jacobsen, Scott “An Interview with Professor Randall Engle: Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Emory Medical School; Professional Fellow, Psychology, University of Edinburgh; Principle Investigator, Attention and Working Memory Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology; Director, GSU/GT Center for Advanced Brain Imaging.” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 11.A (May 2016). www.in-sightjournal.com/an-interview-with-professor-randell-engle-adjunct-professor-psychiatry-emory-medical-school-professional-fellow-psychology-university-of-edinburgh-principle-investigator-attention-and-working.

Harvard: Jacobsen, S. 2016, ‘An Interview with Professor Randall Engle: Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Emory Medical School; Professional Fellow, Psychology, University of Edinburgh; Principle Investigator, Attention and Working Memory Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology; Director, GSU/GT Center for Advanced Brain Imaging’, In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal, vol. 11.A. Available from: <www.in-sightjournal.com/an-interview-with-professor-randell-engle-adjunct-professor-psychiatry-emory-medical-school-professional-fellow-psychology-university-of-edinburgh-principle-investigator-attention-and-working>.

Harvard, Australian: Jacobsen, S. 2016, ‘An Interview with Professor Randall Engle: Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Emory Medical School; Professional Fellow, Psychology, University of Edinburgh; Principle Investigator, Attention and Working Memory Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology; Director, GSU/GT Center for Advanced Brain ImagingIn-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal, vol. 11.A., www.in-sightjournal.com/an-interview-with-professor-randell-engle-adjunct-professor-psychiatry-emory-medical-school-professional-fellow-psychology-university-of-edinburgh-principle-investigator-attention-and-working.

Modern Language Association (MLA, 7th Edition, 2009): Scott D. Jacobsen. “An Interview with Professor Randall Engle: Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Emory Medical School; Professional Fellow, Psychology, University of Edinburgh; Principle Investigator, Attention and Working Memory Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology; Director, GSU/GT Center for Advanced Brain Imaging.” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal 11.A (2016):May. 2016. Web. <www.in-sightjournal.com/an-interview-with-professor-randell-engle-adjunct-professor-psychiatry-emory-medical-school-professional-fellow-psychology-university-of-edinburgh-principle-investigator-attention-and-working>.

Vancouver/ICMJE: Jacobsen S. An Interview with Professor Randall Engle: Adjunct Professor, Psychiatry, Emory Medical School; Professional Fellow, Psychology, University of Edinburgh; Principle Investigator, Attention and Working Memory Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology; Director, GSU/GT Center for Advanced Brain Imaging [Internet]. (2016, May); 11(A). Available from: www.in-sightjournal.com/an-interview-with-professor-randell-engle-adjunct-professor-psychiatry-emory-medical-school-professional-fellow-psychology-university-of-edinburgh-principle-investigator-attention-and-working.

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Based on a work at www.in-sightjournal.com.

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© Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal 2012-2016. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.  All interviewees co-copyright their interview material and may disseminate for their independent purposes.

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