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Dr. Jonathan Wai: Research Scientist, Talent Identification Program, Duke University & Case Western Reserve University (Part Three)

September 15, 2014

Interviewer: Scott Douglas Jacobsen

Numbering: Issue 6.A, Idea: Outliers & Outsiders (Part Two)

Place of Publication: Langley, British Columbia, Canada

Title: In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal

Web Domain: http://www.in-sightjournal.com

Individual Publication Date: September 15, 2014

Issue Publication Date: January 1, 2015

Name of Publisher: In-Sight Publishing

Frequency: Three Times Per Year

Words: 4,721

ISSN 2369-6885

Dr. Jonathan Wai

(Link to Part One)

(Link to Part Two)

ABSTRACT

Part three of a three-part in-depth, broad interview with Research Scientist, Dr. Jonathan Wai, of the Talent Identification Program, Duke University, and Case Western Reserve University.  He discusses the following subject-matter: talent, productivity, Who’s Smarter? Republicans and Democrats in Congress (2013); success and underchallenged high-talent workers at the highest levels of ability; Is America “On The Wrong Side of History”? (2012), America as an unsustainable superpower, and educational declines in America as measured by PISA; interview with Enrico Moretti, globally competitive world while continuing to attract talent at home; concept of ‘intelligence’, measure of IQ tests, Richard Feynman, Discussions on Genius and Intelligence: Mega Foundation Interview with Arthur Jensen (2002), and Steve Hsu’s comments on Richard Feynman; societal worry about decline in STEM and educational competitiveness in a globalized world, international setting of so-called ‘soft power’, i.e. cultural influence, and ‘hard power’ advocates; additional pieces for reading; future projects; influences and inspiration; and final thoughts with a quote from Wagner.

Keywords: Dirac, Dr. Arthur Jensen, Enrico Moretti, Einstein, Gifted, Hard Power, James Watson, Mark Zuckerberg, Mega Foundation Press, PISA, Richard Feynman, Society, Soft Power, STEM, Steve Case, Steve Hsu, Talented, Vivek Wahwa, Wagner.

21. If we take the highest level of talent in a discipline, something like the top 5% of the ability spectrum tend to have the highest productivity and impact in their discipline.  We could provide a concrete estimate for the amount of talent falling through the cracks of society. Did anyone provide a calculable estimate?  For example, we could estimate the productivity and talent through measuring the current level of productivity and impact in a field through papers published and total citations – even per paper – for the top 5% of the ability spectrum through your estimates based on competitive undergraduate and graduate programs (Who’s Smarter? Republicans and Democrats in Congress, 2013), using the statistical estimates of the occurrence for the top 5% out of the general population, subtract the two of them, and have a relative estimate of lost/under-utilized talent out of the general population.  None of this seems out of the realm of possibility to me regarding the potential of creating a standardized measure for reference when measuring the improvement of utilization of the gifted and talented at the top 5% (or any other percent for that matter).  What do you think?  What other means could provide an accurate picture of the societal plight of underutilized talent?

This is an interesting idea.  Probably some of the strongest international evidence that the U.S. is not developing its talented students is from international comparison tests such as the PISA.

22. What do you make of the great divide between the maximum level of ability required for the most cognitively complex fields such as pure mathematics, medicine, and science, and the under-challenged gifted population with ability in excess of the mean level of ability requisite for those disciplines? In other words, for example, their field requires 1.5 or 2 SD, but they feel unchallenged because of having ability at 3 SD.

When someone has an ability level well beyond their peers they are likely to be quite successful.  Yet they also may not be as challenged as they could have been had they chosen a discipline with people as smart as, or much smarter than them.

23. You note the immigration of more talent in Is America “On The Wrong Side of History”? (2012), where China sees the US as an unsustainable superpower. However, this seems unreasonable.  International settings and competition, and global integration of political, economic, technological, cultural, and informational systems in the 21st century will disallow the viability of long-term immigration of the most talented, gifted, and appropriately skilled and motivated.  It seems to me nations will continue to compete for the talent worldwide at an increasing rate.  Of course, the US will stay attractive to the talented.  Even so, this will not last, especially in light of the educational declines occurring for some time now in the US as measured by such rankings as the PISA.  What do you think?  Why?  How might the US and Canada remedy such decline?

The solution is logical, but is not so simple to implement due to political barriers: encourage talented people to live and work in the U.S. or Canada or whatever your home country is.  There is always going to be a limited supply of talented people and because they can come from anywhere the competition will be worldwide.

24. Furthermore, the interview with Enrico Moretti tells of the desire for allowing more foreign-born talent to enter into the US by such business luminaries as Vivek Wahwa, Mark Zuckerberg, Steve Case, and others, which does assist the competitive streak of the nation. However, this seems more temporary, a short-term fix, with tremendous implications for the long-term if the investment in fields having higher economic return-of-investment (ROI), e.g. STEM disciplines, for the individuals and societies involved do not having adequate funding.  At some point, you cannot immigrate talent in a globally competitive world if the world integrates to a sufficient level of transport, exchange of information, trade, and so forth.  In an integrated global economy, it seems implausible for an indefinite period of time, and therefore I ask, what would you do for the long-term at the individual level?  How can the US appear more attractive to talented Americans to stay in their country of birth?

The solution, as I have outlined in my writings, is to both develop homegrown talent as well as encourage foreign talent to come and stay. Probably the driving principle that has attracted talent from the around the world is the freedom to innovate.

25. Do you ever question the operational definition of the concept ‘intelligence’ and subsequent measurement through IQ tests? For instance, Richard Feynman claimed to have an IQ of 125.  However, some replies do arise from an interview with Dr. Arthur Jensen from the ebook published by Mega Foundation Press entitled Discussions on Genius and Intelligence: Mega Foundation Interview with Arthur Jensen (2002).   In particular, the late Dr. Jensen stated in the book-length interview:

I don’t take anecdotal reports of the IQs of famous persons at all seriously. They are often fictitious and are used to make a point – typically a put-down of IQ test and the whole idea that individual differences in intelligence can be ranked or measured. James Watson once claimed an IQ of 115; the daughter of another very famous Nobelist claimed that her father would absolutely “flunk” any IQ test. It’s all ridiculous. Furthermore, the outstanding feature of any famous and accomplished person, especially a reputed genius, such as Feynman, is never their level of g (or their IQ), but some special talent and some other traits (e.g., zeal, persistence).  Outstanding achievement(s) depend on these other qualities besides high intelligence. (Langan et al, 2002)

As you have noted repeatedly in your writing with wit, “…The plural of anecdote is not data.” What do you think of this topic?  How might others with differing ideas than you argue?

Leaving aside the label “intelligence,” I think when it comes to psychometric measurement just about every mental standardized test will measure the g factor or general mental ability to a large degree.  On Feynman’s IQ, I will quote the physicist Steve Hsu, whose views I share on this topic (see my interview with him on Psychology Today):

Is it true Feynman’s IQ score was only 125?

“Feynman was universally regarded as one of the fastest thinking and most creative theorists in his generation. Yet it has been reported-including by Feynman himself-that he only obtained a score of 125 on a school IQ test. I suspect that this test emphasized verbal, as opposed to mathematical, ability. Feynman received the highest score in the country by a large margin on the notoriously difficult Putnam mathematics competition exam, although he joined the MIT team on short notice and did not prepare for the test. He also reportedly had the highest scores on record on the math/physics graduate admission exams at Princeton. It seems quite possible to me that Feynman’s cognitive abilities might have been a bit lopsided-his vocabulary and verbal ability were well above average, but perhaps not as great as his mathematical abilities. I recall looking at excerpts from a notebook Feynman kept while an undergraduate. While the notes covered very advanced topics for an undergraduate-including general relativity and the Dirac equation-it also contained a number of misspellings and grammatical errors. I doubt Feynman cared very much about such things.”

26. Oftentimes, the societal worry about the great decline in STEM and educational competitiveness in a globalized world seems too high. However, the pragmatic implementation of practice appears limited to me.  Regardless, much of this misses some of the major areas of great influence from a nation, which tends to have the greatest level of dissemination within an international setting of so-called ‘soft power’, i.e. cultural influence.  Of course, the worry about STEM arises out of global competitiveness.  In other words, this seems to me to give primacy to GDP over citizenry having adequate education, but with additional benefits to citizen education.  Soft power provides a foundation for similar influence in the world other than technology.  Although, using the technological platforms invented or improved upon by the STEM graduates.  In that, STEM graduates can assist the economic and political aims of ‘hard power’ advocates, but the platforms of technology emerging from the technological innovations of them allow the soft power influence to proliferate.  Where do you see more importance – STEM or arts disciplines/hard or soft power?  Or both? 

It would be reasonable to think it would be both.

27. Of those pieces which I appreciate most for further reflection: Lee Smolin Encourages Graduate Student to Stay in Science, Will We Ever Find the Next Einstein?How Do You Make An Intellectual Dream Team?, If You Are Creative, Are You Also Intelligent?, Is Spatial Intelligence Essential for Innovation and Can We Increase It Through Training?, Could We Create Another Einstein?, Is America “on the Wrong Side of History”?, How Do We Get Kids to Want to Be Einstein?, Intelligence: New Finds And Theoretical Insights (a very good interview with Dr. Diane F. Halpern), The Educational World Is Flat, Studying Too Much? This Government Will Stop You, Steve Jobs Leveraged His Intelligence To More Effectively Create, How Brainy Is Your Major, Are Elite Athletes Marrying Elite Athletes? (a great read for discussion on individual differences), How to Think Like a Scientist (good tips for general curiosity and critical thinking too), The Art of Communicating Science, Do Journalists And Academics Live In The “Real World”?, Teaching Without Words, Finding The Next Carl SaganDo Smart People Rule The World?, and How Science Writing Can Save Lives.  Do you have any recommended reading?

Thank you!  I recommend that everyone should read what they are most interested in.

28. What projects do you have in the coming years?

I am currently involved in many different research and writing projects which surround the role of talent and its impact on society.

29. Who most influenced you? Who inspires you?

The list of people who have influenced me are written on the numerous books and articles I have read so far in my lifetime.

30. To close with a quote of Wagner from your article Could We Create Another Einstein?, “Parents, teachers, mentors, and employers—we all have urgent work to do.” Do you have any final thoughts?

I don’t.  Thank you for these very thoughtful questions.

Bibliography

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  15. Wai, J. (2014, August 17). 6 Lessons for Life and Love.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201408/6-lessons-love-and-life.
  16. Wai, J. (2014, May 26). 7 Time-Tested Steps to Achieving Excellence.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201405/7-time-tested-steps-achieving-excellence.
  17. Wai, J. (2014, March 1). 8 Simple Strategies to Improve Your Innovation.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201403/8-simple-strategies-improve-your-innovation.
  18. Wai, J. (2011, December 26). A Polymath Physicist On Richard Feynman’s “Low” IQ And Finding Another Einstein.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201112/polymath-physicist-richard-feynmans-low-iq-and-finding-another.
  19. Wai, J. (2011, March 15). America’s Got Talent.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201103/americas-got-talent.
  20. Wai, J. (2013, August 13). Anatomy Of A Dissertation Defense.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201308/anatomy-dissertation-defense.
  21. Wai, J. (2013, September 3). Are Elite Athletes Marrying Elite Athletes?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201309/are-elite-athletes-marrying-elite-athletes.
  22. Wai, J. (2013, May 10). Are Female-Male Math Ratios Increasing?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201305/are-male-female-math-ratios-increasing.
  23. Wai, J. (2014, January 20). Are Wealthier Congress Members Also Smarter?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201401/are-wealthier-congress-members-also-smarter.
  24. Wai, J. (2012 November 26). Are You An Exception To The Rule?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201211/are-you-exception-the-rule.
  25. Wai, J. (2014, June 9). Are You An Invisible in a World of Visibles?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201406/are-you-invisible-in-world-visibles.
  26. Wai, J. (2011, May 23). Are You Culturally Literate?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201105/are-you-culturally-literate.
  27. Wai, J. (2013, October 22). Attractiveness and IQ of College Disciplines.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201310/attractiveness-and-the-iq-levels-college-disciplines.
  28. Wai, J. (2013, September 23). Being Around Smart People Makes Us Innovative.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201309/being-around-smart-people-makes-us-more-innovative.
  29. Wai, J. (2012, June 10). Can Psychology Be Considered A Science?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201206/can-psychology-be-considered-science.
  30. Wai, J. (2011, June 6). Can The Magic Of Great Literature Take You Around The World?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201106/can-the-magic-great-literature-take-you-around-the-world.
  31. Wai, J. (2012, July 8). Chess Concepts Peter Thiel Used To Become A Billionaire.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201207/chess-concepts-peter-thiel-used-become-billionaire.
  32. Wai, J. (2013, December 11). Collective Intelligence: Help the World Create an IQ Test.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201312/collective-intelligence-help-the-world-create-iq-test.
  33. Wai, J. (2012, February 25). Could Brain Imaging Replace the SAT?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201202/could-brain-imaging-replace-the-sat.
  34. Wai, J. (2012, April 29). Could We Create Another Einstein?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201204/could-we-create-another-einstein.
  35. Wai, J. (2011, April 16). Do Gifted Adolescents Drink As Much As Their Peers?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201104/do-gifted-adolescents-drink-often-their-peers.
  36. Wai, J. (2013, February 4). Do Gifted Students Want to Be A Scientific Genius Today?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201302/do-gifted-kids-want-be-scientific-genius-today.
  37. Wai, J. (2013, February 25). Do Journalists And Academics Live In The “Real World”?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201302/do-journalists-and-academics-live-in-the-real-world.
  38. Wai, J. (2011, August 16). Do Smart People Rule The World?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201108/do-smart-people-rule-the-world.
  39. Wai, J. (2014, July 7). Do Standardized Tests Matter?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201407/do-standardized-tests-matter.
  40. Wai, J. (2014, April 27). Do We Have Trouble Taking Objective Feedback?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201404/do-we-have-trouble-taking-objective-feedback.
  41. Wai, J. (2013, November 24). Does Technology Make You Smarter Than You Think?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201311/does-technology-make-you-smarter-you-think.
  42. Wai, J. (2013, April 8). O. Wilson, Scientists Definitely Need High Math Ability.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201304/e-o-wilson-scientists-definitely-need-high-math-ability.
  43. Wai, J. (2014, January 4). Even as a child, Jeff Bezos was a data-obsessed, workaholic genius.Quartz.  Retrieved from http://qz.com/163262/even-as-a-child-jeff-bezos-was-a-data-obsessed-workaholic-genius/.
  44. Wai, J. (2014, March 23). Even Nerds Need to be Appropriately Challenged.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201403/even-nerds-need-be-appropriately-challenged.
  45. Wai, J. (in press).Experts are born, then made: Combining prospective and retrospective longitudinal data shows that cognitive ability matters. [For special issue, Acquiring expertise: Ability, practice, and other influences].
  46. Wai, J. (2012, August 13). Finding The Next Carl Sagan.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201208/finding-the-next-carl-sagan.
  47. Wai, J. (2013, March 17). Finding The Next Sheryl Sandberg.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201303/finding-the-next-sheryl-sandberg.
  48. Wai, J. (2012, December 9). Five Lessons From Salman Khan For Education.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201212/five-lessons-salman-khan-the-future-education.
  49. Wai, J. (2012, January 31). Game The College Rankings?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201201/gaming-the-college-rankings.
  50. Wai, J. (2013, April 1). Games Psychologists Play.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201304/games-psychologists-play.
  51. Wai, J. (2011, August 1). How Brainy Is Your Major?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201108/how-brainy-is-your-major.
  52. Wai, J. (2013, March 29). How Do You Make An Intellectual Dream Team?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201103/how-do-you-make-intellectual-dream-team.
  53. Wai, J. (2011, June 18). How Do You Measure An Intellectual Giant?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201106/how-do-you-measure-intellectual-giant.
  54. Wai, J. (2012, February 12). How Do We Get Kids To Want To Be Einstein?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201202/how-do-we-get-kids-want-be-einstein.
  55. Wai, J. (2012, December 31). How Khan Academy Will Help Find The Next Einstein.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201212/how-khan-academy-will-help-find-the-next-einstein.
  56. Wai, J. (2014, March 17). How Much Do Parents Influence Their Children’s Success?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201403/how-much-do-parents-determine-their-children-s-success.
  57. Wai, J. (2012, June 25). How Science Writing Can Save Lives.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201206/how-science-writing-can-save-lives.
  58. Wai, J. (2011, September 11). How To Control Your Creativity.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201109/how-control-your-creativity.
  59. Wai, J. (2012, January 22). How To Spot A Verbal Virtuoso.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201201/how-spot-verbal-virtuoso.
  60. Wai, J. (2013, July 22). How To Think Like A Scientist.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201307/how-think-scientist.
  61. Wai, J. (2011, April 12). If You Are Creative, Are You Also Intelligent?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201104/if-you-are-creative-are-you-also-intelligent.
  62. Wai, J. (2012, February 13). In The Ages of Big Data: That’s Why Math Counts!.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201202/its-the-age-big-data-thats-why-math-counts.
  63. Wai, J. (2012, January 11). Intelligence: New Finds And Theoretical Insights.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201201/intelligence-new-findings-and-theoretical-developments.
  64. Wai, J. (2013).Investigating America’s elite: Cognitive ability, education, and sex differences. Intelligence, 41, 203-211.
  65. Wai, J. (2012, April 2). Is America “On The Wrong Side Of History”?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201204/is-america-the-wrong-side-history.
  66. Wai, J. (2011, July 4). Is Community The Third Dimension Of Life?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201107/is-community-the-third-dimension-life.
  67. Wai, J. (2011, May 10). Is Spatial Intelligence Essential for Innovation and Can We Increase It Through Training?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201105/is-spatial-intelligence-essential-innovation-and-can-we-increa.
  68. Wai, J. (2011, August 28). Is This How To Fix Our Math Education?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201108/is-how-fix-our-math-education.
  69. Wai, J. (2013, February 26). Jack Andraka Is Not An Ordinary Kid.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201302/jack-andraka-is-not-ordinary-kid.
  70. Wai, J. (2012, April 16). Jonah Lehrer: The Literary Magician.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201204/jonah-lehrer-the-literary-magician.
  71. Wai, J. (2013, September 11). Lee Smolin Encourages Graduate Student To Stay in Science.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201309/lee-smolin-encourages-graduate-student-stay-in-science.
  72. Wai, J. (2014, April 28). More Gifted Students: Harder to Get Into the Ivies?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201404/more-gifted-students-harder-get-the-ivies.
  73. Wai, J. (2012, December 16). Nikhil Goyal: Future US Secretary of Education?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201212/nikhil-goyal-future-us-secretary-education.
  74. Wai, J. (2013, November 24). Nine Ways to Become Smarter Than You Think.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201311/nine-ways-become-smarter-you-think.
  75. Wai, J. (2014, March 27). One Size Does Not Fit All: The Need For Variety In Learning.MindShift.  Retrieved from http://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/2014/03/one-size-does-not-fit-all-the-need-for-variety-in-learning/.
  76. Wai, J. (2013, June 24). Project Scientist: Inspiring The Next Generation Of Females.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201306/project-scientist-inspiring-the-next-generation-females.
  77. Wai, J. (2014, June 16). Reinventing The Boundaries of Science Journalism.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201406/reinventing-the-boundaries-science-journalism.
  78. Wai, J. (2013, January 22). Rick Hess On Why Academics Should Engage The Public.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201301/rick-hess-why-academics-should-engage-the-public.
  79. Wai, J. (2014, July 18). Shakespeare, Vermeer, and the “Secrets” of Genius.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201407/shakespeare-vermeer-and-the-secrets-genius.
  80. Wai, J. (2011, November 26). Sorry, Talented: Striving Matters.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201111/sorry-talented-striving-matters.
  81. Wai, J. (2014, June 17). Sorry Jay Matthews, Gifted Education Matters.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201406/sorry-jay-mathews-gifted-education-matters.
  82. Wai, J. (2011, October 22). Steve Jobs Leveraged His Intelligence To More Effectively Create.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201110/steve-jobs-leveraged-his-intelligence-more-effectively-create.
  83. Wai, J. (2011, December 11). Studying Too Much? This Government Will Stop You. Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201112/studying-too-much-government-will-stop-you.
  84. Wai, J. (2012, September 7). Teach Students What They Don’t But Are Ready To Learn.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201209/teach-students-what-they-dont-know-are-ready-learn.
  85. Wai, J. (2012, October 15). Teaching Without Words.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201210/teaching-without-words.
  86. Wai, J. (2013, June 3). The Art Of Communicating Science.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201306/the-art-communicating-science.
  87. Wai, J. (2011, December 20). The benefits of Being Gifted.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201112/the-benefits-being-gifted.
  88. Wai, J. (2012, January 8). The Educational World Is Flat.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201201/the-educational-world-is-flat.
  89. Wai, J. (2012, November 12). The Growing Complexity of Everyday Life.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201211/the-growing-complexity-everyday-life.
  90. Wai, J. (2014, February 10). The Olympics: 5 Things You Can Learn About Talent & Practice.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201402/the-olympics-5-things-you-can-learn-about-talent-practice.
  91. Wai, J. (2012, October 2). The Paris Hilton Effect.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201210/the-paris-hilton-effect.
  92. Wai, J. (2011, October 3). The Real Slumdog Millionaire.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201110/the-real-slumdog-millionaire.
  93. Wai, J. (2014, June 2). The Right Way To Treat Child Geniuses.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201406/the-right-way-treat-child-geniuses.
  94. Wai, J. (2012, October 29). The Role Of Talent In Education and Business.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201210/the-role-talent-in-education-and-business.
  95. Wai, J. (2012, May 13). This 8th Grader Wants to Measure Your Cat’s IQ. Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201205/8th-grader-wants-measure-your-cats-iq.
  96. Wai, J. (2012, July 29). The SAT Is Too Easy.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201207/the-sat-is-too-easy.
  97. Wai, J. (2012, August 8). The Spatial Thinkers That Get Left Outside Higher Education’s Gates.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201208/the-spatial-thinkers-get-left-outside-higher-educations-gates.
  98. Wai, J. (2012, November 19). Three Reasons Why Americans Ignore Gifted Children.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201209/three-reasons-why-americans-ignore-gifted-children.
  99. Wai, J. (2012, August 26). Three Reasons Why Schools Neglect Spatial Intelligence.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201208/three-reasons-why-schools-neglect-spatial-intelligence.
  100. Wai, J. (2014, September 2). Three Ways We Can All Become Better Teachers.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201409/three-ways-we-can-all-become-better-teachers.
  101. Wai, J. (2014, March 20). Training Your Brain with a Simple New Game.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201403/train-your-brain-simple-new-game-three-words.
  102. Wai, J. (2011, July 18). Wanna Be A Billionaire So Freakin’ Bad?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201107/wanna-be-billionaire-so-freakin-bad.
  103. Wai, J. (2013, January 7). Want to Be More Productive? Make Decisions Use “The Meter”.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201301/want-be-more-productive-make-decisions-using-the-meter.
  104. Wai, J. (2014, January 13). Want to Get Smarter? Read Something on This List. Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201401/want-get-smarter-read-something-list.
  105. Wai, J. (2011, November 20). Was Steve Jobs On The Same Level As Einstein Or Ghandi?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201111/was-steve-jobs-the-same-level-einstein-or-gandhi.
  106. Wai, J. (2011, November 7). Was Steve Jobs Smart? Heck Yes!. Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201111/was-steve-jobs-smart-heck-yes.
  107. Wai, J. (2013, December 27). We Are Not Smart As We Think.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201312/we-are-not-smart-we-think.
  108. Wai, J. (2013, November 13). We Have Entered the Gold Age of Visual Storytelling.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201311/we-have-entered-the-golden-age-visual-storytelling.
  109. Wai, J. (2013, April 29). We Have the Grammar Police, Why Not The Math Police?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201304/we-have-the-grammar-police-why-not-the-math-police.
  110. Wai, J. (2014, April 13). We need to Value Spatial Creativity.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201404/we-need-value-spatial-creativity.
  111. Wai, J. (2011, March 18). What Can Happen When The Majority Becomes The Minority?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201103/what-can-happen-when-the-majority-becomes-the-minority.
  112. Wai, J. (in press).What does it mean to be an expert? [For special issue, Acquiring expertise: Ability, practice, and other influences].
  113. Wai, J. (2012, August 13). What If Steve Jobs Had Lived Over 100 Years?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201207/what-if-steve-jobs-had-lived-over-100-years.
  114. Wai, J. (2014, September 9). What Your Social Media Use Says About You.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201409/what-your-social-media-use-says-about-you.
  115. Wai, J. (2013, December 3). What’s the Smartest Country In the World?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201312/whats-the-smartest-country-in-the-world.
  116. Wai, J. (2014, May 12). When Can You Trust the Experts?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201405/when-can-you-trust-the-experts.
  117. Wai, J. (2014, February 3). Where Can Smart People Have the Greatest Impact?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from  http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201402/where-can-smart-people-have-the-greatest-impactt.
  118. Wai, J. (2012, May 27). Who Is The Mental Equivalent of Usain Bolt?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201205/who-is-the-mental-equivalent-usain-bolt.
  119. Wai, J. (2013, November 4). Who’s Smarter? Republicans and Democrats in Congress. Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201311/who-s-smarter-republicans-and-democrats-in-congress.
  120. Wai, J. (2012, April 18). Why Are The Children of Immigrants Becoming Immigrants?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201204/why-are-the-children-immigrants-becoming-immigrants.
  121. Wai, J. (2011, July 1). Why Are There Not More STEM Majors?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201307/why-are-there-not-more-stem-majors.
  122. Wai, J. (2012, May 6). Why Are We so Obsessed With Improving IQ?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201205/why-are-we-so-obsessed-improving-iq.
  123. Wai, J. (2012, July 3). Why Brains Are More Important Than Billions.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201207/why-brains-are-more-important-billions.
  124. Wai, J. (2012, March 11). Why Don’t We Value Spatial Intelligence?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201203/why-dont-we-value-spatial-intelligence.
  125. Wai, J. (2012, April 2). Why Is It Socially Acceptable To Be Bad At Math?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201203/why-is-it-socially-acceptable-be-bad-math.
  126. Wai, J. (2013, October 8). Why Life Is Really the Ultimate IQ Test.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201310/why-life-is-really-the-ultimate-iq-test.
  127. Wai, J. (2014, March 7). Why the SAT Needs to Be Harder.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201403/why-the-sat-needs-be-harder.
  128. Wai, J. (2011, March 1). Will We Ever Find The Next Einstein?.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201103/will-we-ever-find-the-next-einstein.
  129. Wai, J. (2012, September 2). Why What You Post On Facebook Is Not Who You Really Are.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201209/why-what-you-post-facebook-is-not-really-who-you-are.
  130. Wai, J. (2012, February 27). Your Smartphone Might Be Making You Smarter.Psychology Today: Finding the Next Einstein.  Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201202/your-smartphone-might-be-making-you-smarter.
  131. Wai, J., Cacchio, M., Putallaz, M., & Makel, M. C. (2010). Sex differences in the right tail of cognitive abilities: A 30-year examination. Intelligence, 38, 412-423.
  132. Wai, J., Lubinski, D., & Benbow, C. P. (2005). Creativity and occupational accomplishments among intellectually precocious youths: An age 13 to age 33 longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 484-492.
  133. Wai, J., Lubinski, D., & Benbow, C. P. (2009). Spatial ability for STEM domains: Aligning over fifty years of cumulative psychological knowledge solidifies its importance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 817-835.
  134. Wai, J., Lubinski, D., Benbow, C. P., & Steiger, J. H. (2010). Accomplishment in science technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and its relation to STEM educational dose: A 25-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 860-871.
  135. Wai, J. & Nisen, M. (2013, October 23). The 25 Countries With The Most Brainpower.Business Insider.  Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/countries-with-the-most-brainpower-2013-10.
  136. Wai, J. & Nisel, M. (2014, January 23). The Best Business Schools Based On GMAT Scores.   Retrieved from http://qz.com/169771/the-best-business-schools-based-on-gmat-scores/.
  137. Wai, J., & Putallaz, M. (in press). The Flynn effect puzzle: A 30-year examination from the right tail of the ability distribution provides some missing pieces. Intelligence.
  138. Wai, J., Putallaz, M., & Makel, M. C. (2012). Studying intellectual outliers: Are there sex differences, and are the smart getting smarter?Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 382-390

****************Footnotes and bibliography in Archives “6.A” PDF*****************

License

In-sight by Scott Douglas Jacobsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.

Copyright

© Scott Douglas Jacobsen, In-Sight, and In-Sight Publishing 2012-2014. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Scott Douglas Jacobsen and In-Sight with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.  All interviewees co-copyright their interview material and may disseminate for their independent purposes.

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