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An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Three)

Interviewer: Scott Douglas Jacobsen

Numbering: Issue 18.A, Idea: Outliers & Outsiders (Part Fourteen)

Place of Publication: Langley, British Columbia, Canada

Title: In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal

Web Domain: http://www.in-sightjournal.com

Individual Publication Date: December 1, 2018

Issue Publication Date: January 1, 2019

Name of Publisher: In-Sight Publishing

Frequency: Three Times Per Year

Words: 2,116

ISSN 2369-6885

Abstract 

Blair T. Longley is the Party Leader for the Marijuana Party of Canada. He discusses: regressive policies in the nation’s history regarding marijuana; responsibilities with public exposure; and those deserving more exposure.

Keywords: Blair T. Longley, Canadian Society, Cannabis, Marijuana Party of Canada.

An Interview with Blair T. Longley: Party Leader, Marijuana Party of Canada (Part Three)[1],[2]

*Please see the footnotes, bibliography, and citation style listing after the interview.*

1. Scott Douglas Jacobsen: What have been the most regressive policies in provincial, territorial, and national history from your perspective for the legalization and regulation of marijuana?

Blair T. Longley: The total criminalization of the cultivation of cannabis, which took effect in Canada in 1938, wiped out the hemp industries which could have grown hemp for food and fiber. We are living inside of Wonderland Matrix Bizarro Worlds, where everything has become as absurdly backward as possible, due to society actually being controlled by enforced frauds. Everything regarding the history of how hemp became marijuana, and thus, cannabis became completely criminalized, is but one of the tiny tips of an immense iceberg of integrated systems of legalized lies backed by legalized violence, which almost totally dominate Globalized Neolithic Civilization. The ruling classes, the pyramidion people in those entrenched social pyramid systems, are becoming increasingly psychotic psychopaths, while most of the people they rule over are matching that by becoming increasingly impotent political idiots. People who do not know anything but what their schools and the mass media tell them know nothing but bullshit, which they have been brainwashed to believe in their whole lives. They may be told relative truths about trivial facts, but otherwise they are massively LIED TO BY OMISSION regarding the most important facts, as well as generally misinformed about everything, in proportion to how important those things are. Again, the ways in which the schools and mass media, operated by professional hypocrites, have presented grossly disproportional and irrational risk analysis regarding the exaggerated harms and dangers of marijuana, simply symbolized the ways in which the vast majority of people were brainwashed to believe in bullshit, in ways which have become more and more scientific brainwashing, as manifested within the context of an oxymoronic scientific dictatorship, which has primarily applied progress in science and technology in order to get better at enforcing frauds, while adamantly refusing to become more genuinely scientific about itself.

The biggest bullies’ bullshit world views have been built into the basic structure of the dominate natural languages and philosophy of science, such that almost everyone thinks and communicates in ways which are absurdly backwards, and moreover, are tending to actually become exponentially more absurdly backwards, as the progress in physical science and technology continue to be applied through sociopolitical systems based upon being able to enforce frauds, which are thereby becoming exponentially more fraudulent. Since the most socially successful people living within systems based upon enforcing frauds are the best available professional hypocrites, there are no practically possible ways to prevent that from continuing to get worse, faster… Although the laws of nature are never going to stop working, and therefore, nothing that depends upon the laws of nature is going to stop working, natural selection pressures have driven the development of artificial selection systems to become based on the maximum possible dishonesties, which are not getting better in any publicly significant ways, but rather, are actually becoming exponentially more dishonest. Globalized Neolithic Civilization is headed towards series of psychotic breakdowns, a tiny component of which is the psychotic breakdown of pot prohibition.

2. Jacobsen: You have moderate exposure in the media. What responsibilities come with this public recognition?

Longley: The public opinions regarding the Marijuana Party tend to be similar to the rest of the systems of public opinions, which are based upon generation after generation being brainwashed to believe in the biggest bullies’ bullshit world views by their schools and mass media. The general public opinions of the Marijuana Party could hardly be lowered by anything that I could possibly do. In my view, the vast majority of Canadians, literally more than 99%, always behave like incompetent political idiots, (while the fraction of 1% that are the pyramidion people in those social pyramid systems are more competently malicious.) Inside that context, I tend to not want to volunteer to be a performing clown, who can be drafted into the narratives which are presented by the mass media. Meanwhile, I regard those people who have been made become more relatively famous by their greater mass media coverage publicity as being mainstream morons and reactionary revolutionaries.

While I may still somewhat entertain vain fantasies that I should promote more radical truths, including more radical hemp truths, from any overall objective point of view society has become too terminally sick and insane to recover from the degree to which that has become the case. One tiny manifestation of that are those ways that the “legalization” is currently indicated to become based on compromises with the same old huge lies, while more radical hemp truths are not expected to be able to change that. Therefore, “legalizing” marijuana now looks like it is headed toward becoming ridiculously restrictive regulations, which will actually amount to “Pot Prohibition 2.0” based on “Reefer Madness 2.0.”

3. Jacobsen: Who are activists, authors, bloggers, writers, and so on, that influence you, and deserve greater exposure?

Longley: I am not aware of any particular sources which I would unreservedly recommend. My opinions are due to sifting through vast amounts of information, such that what I have distilled is nothing like anything which was similar to what was originally presented in those sources. In my view, it is politically impossible for any publicly significant opposition to not be controlled. I am not aware of any “alternatives” that are more than “alternative bullshit.” The best one gets is relatively superficial analyses, which are correct on those levels, but which then tend to collapse back to the same old-fashioned bogus “solutions” based upon impossible ideals. It is barely possible to exaggerate the degree to which almost everyone takes for granted the DUALITIES of false fundamental dichotomies, and the related impossible ideals. I am not aware of any publicly significant “opposition” that is not controlled by the ways that they continue to almost completely take for granted thinking in those ways. (Of course, that includes the publicly significant groups that the mass media have most recognized as those who have campaigned to “legalize” marijuana.)

Ideally, we should go through series of intellectual scientific revolutions and profound paradigm shifts. Primarily that means we should attempt to better understand how human beings and civilization live as manifestations of general energy systems, and therefore, we should attempt to use more UNITARY MECHANISMS to better understand how human beings and civilization actually live as entropic pumps of environmental energy flows. However, I am not aware of anyone who is publicly significant that sufficiently does that, especially because going through such series of profound paradigms becomes like going through level after level of more radical truths, which amounts to going through the fringe, then the fringe of the fringe, and then the fringe of the fringe of the fringe, etc. … I present what I call the Radical Marijuana positions as being those Fringe Cubed positions, which are based upon attempting to recognize the degree to which almost everyone currently almost totally takes for granted thinking and communicating through the uses of the dominate natural languages and philosophical presumptions, which became dominate due to those being the bullshit which was backed up by bullies for generation after generation, for thousands of years.

Not only has civilization been based on thousands of years of being able to back up lies with violence, while progress in physical science has enabled those systems to become exponentially bigger and BIGGER, but also, those few who superficially recognize that then still tend to recommend bogus “solutions” which continue to be absurdly backwards, because they do not engage in deeper analysis regarding how and why natural selection pressures drove the development of artificial selection systems to become most socially successful by becoming the most deceitful and treacherous that those could possibly become. Since those are the facts, everything that matters most is becoming worse, faster … Within that context, the bogus “legalization” of marijuana, based upon recycled huge lies, is too little, too late, and too trivial to matter much. Rather, what is happening is that the Grand Canyon Chasms between physical science and political science are becoming wider and WIDER!

Human beings and civilization have developed in ways whereby they deliberately deny and misunderstand themselves living as entropic pumps of environmental energy flows in the most absurdly backward ways possible, while yet, almost everyone continues to take that for granted, which includes the degree to which the central core of triumphant organized crime, namely, banker dominated governments, are surrounded by layers of controlled “opposition” groups, which stay within the same bullshit-based frame of reference. There is almost no genuine opposition, but rather, the only publicly significant “opposition” is controlled by the ways that they continue to think and communicate using the dominate natural languages and philosophy of science, without being critical of those. Of course, that characterizes the controlled “opposition” groups, which have been campaigning to “legalize” marijuana. As those campaigns have become more mainstream, those campaigns have become less radical, and therefore, have tended to even more be able and willing to compromise with the same old recycled huge lies. Therefore, in general, one is watching the “legalization” of marijuana turn into a mockery of itself, whereby what is actually happening is becoming more and more absurdly backwards to what was originally being promoted by those who long ago were campaigning to try to “legalize” on the basis of promoting more radical hemp truths. Instead, “legalized” marijuana is being more and more forced back to fit inside the established monetary and taxation systems, which are almost totally based upon public governments enforcing frauds by private banks. The current news trends indicate that “legalized” marijuana is only happening INSIDE the systems that criminalized cannabis in the first place. Hence, overall, the campaigns to “legalize” marijuana are more and more being betrayed, such that what is most probably going to actually happen are sets of ridiculously restrictive regulations. (Of course, we will have to wait and watch to see what finally happens in those regards during the next couple of years. However, there are no good grounds to be genuinely optimistic about that at the present time.)

Appendix I: Footnotes

[1] Party Leader, Marijuana Party of Canada.

[2] Individual Publication Date: December 1, 2018: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-three; Full Issue Publication Date: January 1, 2019: https://in-sightjournal.com/insight-issues/.

Appendix II: Citation Style Listing

American Medical Association (AMA): Jacobsen S. An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Three) [Online].December 2018; 18(A). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-three.

American Psychological Association (APA, 6th Edition, 2010): Jacobsen, S.D. (2018, December 1). An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Three)Retrieved from http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-three.

Brazilian National Standards (ABNT): JACOBSEN, S. An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Three). In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A, December. 2018. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-three>.

Chicago/Turabian, Author-Date (16th Edition): Jacobsen, Scott. 2018. “An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Three).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A. http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-three.

Chicago/Turabian, Humanities (16th Edition): Jacobsen, Scott “An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Three).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A (December 2018). http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-three.

Harvard: Jacobsen, S. 2018, ‘An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Three)In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal, vol. 18.A. Available from: <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-three>.

Harvard, Australian: Jacobsen, S. 2018, ‘An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Three)In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal, vol. 18.A., http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-three.

Modern Language Association (MLA, 7th Edition, 2009): Scott D. Jacobsen. “An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Three).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal 18.A (2018):December. 2018. Web. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-three>.

Vancouver/ICMJE: Jacobsen S. An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Three) [Internet]. (2018, December; 18(A). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-three.

License and Copyright

License

In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal by Scott Douglas Jacobsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.in-sightjournal.com.

Copyright

© Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal 2012-2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.  All interviewees co-copyright their interview material and may disseminate for their independent purposes.

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An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Two)

Interviewer: Scott Douglas Jacobsen

Numbering: Issue 18.A, Idea: Outliers & Outsiders (Part Fourteen)

Place of Publication: Langley, British Columbia, Canada

Title: In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal

Web Domain: http://www.in-sightjournal.com

Individual Publication Date: November 22, 2018

Issue Publication Date: January 1, 2019

Name of Publisher: In-Sight Publishing

Frequency: Three Times Per Year

Words: 1,437

ISSN 2369-6885

Abstract 

Blair T. Longley is the Party Leader for the Marijuana Party of Canada. He discusses: being the leader of the Marijuana Party of Canada; derivative policies; the advancement of society; important individuals; and the research on marijuana.

Keywords: Blair T. Longley, Canadian Society, Cannabis, Marijuana Party of Canada.

An Interview with Blair T. Longley: Party Leader, Marijuana Party of Canada (Part Two)[1],[2]

*Please see the footnotes, bibliography, and citation style listing after the interview.*

1. Scott Douglas Jacobsen: You are the Leader of the Marijuana Party of Canada. What is the primary policy of the Marijuana Party of Canada?

Blair T. Longley: The Marijuana Party was primarily founded as a single issue party, based upon the related aspects of “legalizing marijuana.” The only founding policy beyond those related to “marijuana legalization” was to change the voting system, such that there would be better representation achieved than the existing first-past-the-post electoral systems, which tends to wipe out smaller parties, while possibly giving total power to the dominant minority.

Of course, I have always, without making any effort to do so, been riding along with the waves of events that were happening during the historical times and places where I happened to exist. Hence, it is consistent with my continuing to surf the waves of change that the current Liberal Party Canadian government is currently working upon both those issues, of “legalizing marijuana” and “electoral reform.”

2. Jacobsen: What derivative policies, which have details and acts as sub-clauses to the primary policy, follow from the primary policy?

Longley: That depends upon to what degree one is able and willing to accept and integrate the more radical hemp truths, that hemp is the single best plant on the planet for people, for food, fiber, fun, and medicine. Neolithic Civilization has always been based upon being able to enforce frauds. Within that overall context, marijuana laws are the single simplest symbol, and most extreme particular example, of the general pattern of social facts: only a civilization which was completely crazy, and corrupt to the core, could have criminalized cannabis.

3. Jacobsen: Do cults, ideologies, and religions restrict the advancement of society to greater technological, socio-cultural, and spiritual levels?

Longley: That is quite the hyper-complicated question! One of the first sociologists, Emile Durkheim, explained some of the various ways that paradigm shifts are achieved, which have been restated by many others, such as represented in these quotes from Gandhi & Schopenhauer: “First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win.” & “Every truth passes through three stages before it is recognized: In the first it is ridiculed, in the second it is opposed, in the third it is regarded as self-evident.”

Those patterns were documented happening over and over again by Thomas Kuhn in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Similarly, there is a famous quote from John Stuart Mill regarding how: “Yet it is as evident in itself as any amount of argument can make it, that ages are no more infallible than individuals; every age having held many opinions which subsequent ages have deemed not only false but absurd; and it as certain that many opinions, now general, will be rejected by future ages, as it is many, once general, are rejected by the present.”

Within that context, Globalized Neolithic Civilization is running out of enough time to be able to change enough to adapt. The facts are that sociopolitical systems based upon being able to enforce frauds are becoming exponentially more fraudulent, while there appears to be nothing else which is happening which is remotely close to being in the same order of magnitude of changes to be able to adapt to that happening, because Globalized Neolithic Civilization is the manifestation of the excessive successfulness of being controlled by applications of the methods of organized crime through the political processes, in ways which overall are manifesting as runaway criminal insanities. That society appears to have become too sick and insane to be able to recover from how serious that has become. Marijuana laws illustrated the ways that the repetitions of huge lies, backed by lots of violence, controlled civilization, despite that doing so never stopped those lies from being fundamentally false. Everything that Globalized Neolithic Civilization is doing is based upon the history of social pyramid systems of power, whereby some people controlled other people through being able to back up lies with violence. The history of successful warfare was the history of organized crime on larger and larger scales. Being able to back up deceits with destruction gradually morphed to become the history of successful finance based upon public governments enforcing frauds by private banks. It was within that overall context that it was possible for a whole host of other sorts of legalized lies to become backed by legalized violence, which included the example of criminalizing cannabis.

4. Jacobsen: Who are important individuals in the party of the aim of the legalization of marijuana apart from you – or general statements about the membership at large?

Longley: A registered political party can not exist without individual members. Each and every individual who agrees to become a registered member is vital to the overall existence of the party. After having 250+ members, during general elections, the party has to have 1 officially nominated candidate for election. The Marijuana Party operates in totally decentralized ways. Our candidates are practically in the same situation as independent candidates. Our electoral district associations are as autonomous as the elections laws allow them to be.

5. Jacobsen: What does the research state about the benefits and harms of marijuana – by any means of intake such as smoked, ingested, and so on?

Longley: The overall answer continues to be the same as the Royal Commission reported in 1972, that marijuana is the safest of drugs. The history of pot prohibition was always based upon huge lies, which grossly exaggerated the harmfulness of marijuana, which set of lies may be referred to as “Reefer Madness.” In my opinion, smoking marijuana is the worst way to consume cannabis. My view is that smoking should only be done ritually and ceremonially. Due to the history of the criminalization of cannabis, cannabis culture became similar to a slave society, within which context many people became proud of the relatively stupid social habits that they developed during those decades of prohibition. Cannabis should be food, first and foremost. Vapourization is a superior alternative to smoking.

Appendix I: Footnotes

[1] Party Leader, Marijuana Party of Canada.

[2] Individual Publication Date: November 22, 2018: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-two; Full Issue Publication Date: January 1, 2019: https://in-sightjournal.com/insight-issues/.

Appendix II: Citation Style Listing

American Medical Association (AMA): Jacobsen S. An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Two) [Online].November 2018; 18(A). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-two.

American Psychological Association (APA, 6th Edition, 2010): Jacobsen, S.D. (2018, November 22). An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Two)Retrieved from http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-two.

Brazilian National Standards (ABNT): JACOBSEN, S. An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Two). In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A, November. 2018. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-two>.

Chicago/Turabian, Author-Date (16th Edition): Jacobsen, Scott. 2018. “An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Two).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A. http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-two.

Chicago/Turabian, Humanities (16th Edition): Jacobsen, Scott “An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Two).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A (November 2018). http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-two.

Harvard: Jacobsen, S. 2018, ‘An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Two)In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal, vol. 18.A. Available from: <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-two>.

Harvard, Australian: Jacobsen, S. 2018, ‘An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Two)In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal, vol. 18.A., http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-two.

Modern Language Association (MLA, 7th Edition, 2009): Scott D. Jacobsen. “An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Two).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal 18.A (2018):November. 2018. Web. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-two>.

Vancouver/ICMJE: Jacobsen S. An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part Two) [Internet]. (2018, November; 18(A). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-two.

License and Copyright

License

In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal by Scott Douglas Jacobsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.in-sightjournal.com.

Copyright

© Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal 2012-2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.  All interviewees co-copyright their interview material and may disseminate for their independent purposes.

On the Ongoing Campaign Witch-Hunt Against Homosexuals in Tanzania

Author: Isakwisa Amanyisye Lucas Mwakalonge

Numbering: Issue 1.B, Idea: African Freethinking

Place of Publication: Langley, British Columbia, Canada

Title: African Freethinker

Web Domain: http://www.in-sightjournal.com

Individual Publication Date: November 22, 2018

Issue Publication Date: TBD

Name of Publisher: In-Sight Publishing

Frequency: Three Times Per Year

Words: 2,477

ISSN 2369-6885

Keywords: Dar es Salaam, homosexuals, Isakwisa Amanyisye Lucas Mwakalonge, Tanzania.

On the Ongoing Campaign Witch-Hunt Against Homosexuals in Tanzania[1],[2]

It is more than a month now since late days of October 2018 that there has been a hot debate about Homosexuals in Tanzania. This saga has come out as a result of a press conference held by the current Dar es Salaam city Regional Commissioner who told residents and the Nation that he has launched a ‘war against Homosexuals’ in Dar es Salaam, his area of administration. He urged all “good citizens” of Tanzania to join him in this ‘war’. He further insisted to Tanzanians that he is doing so because Homosexuality is “against God’s directives”. Article 61(1)(2) and (5) of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, of 1977 describes a Regional Commissioner as a leader both in the Region assigned to lead, and in the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania, as someone who is appointed by the President to supervise the discharge of all duties and functions of the government of the United Republic of Tanzania in the Region assigned to him or her.

The campaign started by asking good citizens to cooperate with him by giving him information on where those suspects who practice Homosexuality lives, house number, streets, or where they do work, or a place of their business or mention anybody whom they suspect as a Homosexual, and  such information to the Regional Commissioner can be channeled to him through various means like calling him directly through his mobile phone, short messages, WhatsApp, or going direct to him to give that crucial information and other secret ways of communications or going to the police stations in Dar es Salaam and give  information  to Police officers about Homosexuals. The Regional Commissioner said his aim is to make sure that he finishes the problem of having Homosexuals in Dar es Salaam because according to him this is a sin to God, and it is against African traditions, and furthermore he wants to save the next generation from this menace. One among of his strategy is to go directly to those suspects to their places, even at their homes and collect them and deal with them. Apart from hunting them house to house, his other strategy is to call them direct to report to Police stations for further procedures such as being interrogated by both Police officers and sometimes by the Regional Commissioner himself on why do those people practice homosexuality. Further plan of such campaign was to include even medical experts like Doctors whom will be required to undertake some medical tests to the suspects of homosexuality so as to establish expert evidence which may be used in the future in case needed, or perhaps to be used in courts just in case or doubtless such medical tests will help to prove whether the suspect is a real Homosexual or not.

In Tanzania homosexuality is an offense, such offense is categorized as unnatural offenses or offenses against morality.  In the Penal Code Cap 16 Revised edition of 2010 which is an Act to establish a code of criminal law in Tanzania from section 154,155,157 the law prohibits the practices of homosexuality, in case a suspect is found guilty of the offense by the court then the punishment is between 30 years to life imprisonment. Furthermore, the Law of Marriage Act Cap 29 under section 9(1) does provide a definition of marriage as the voluntary union of the man and a woman intended to last for their joint lives but the law does not recognize the same-sex marriages or sexual affairs of persons of the same sex. However, the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania of 1977 in its generality does recognize and protect the rights and liberty of human beings including protection of the minority groups, from article 12 up to article 16 is about protection of human dignity. For instance, in article 12(1) and (2) the constitution stipulates the rights to equality of human beings as follows: “All human beings are born free and are all equal, and every person does deserve respect for his dignity and recognition. While article 13(1) provides that’’ All persons are equal before the law and are entitled, without any discrimination, to protection and equality before the law. Article 13(4) states that “No person shall be discriminated against by any person or any authority acting under any law or in the discharge of the functions or business of any state office. Article 14 provides that “Every person has the right to live and to the protection of his life by the society in accordance with the law”. Article 15(1) provides that “every person has the right to freedom and to live as a free person”. Article 16(1) provides that “Every person is entitled to respect and protection of his person, the privacy of his own person, his family and of his matrimonial life and respect and protection of his residence and private communication.”  In Tanzania constitution is the supreme Law.

Similar rights are also provided in the African Charter On Human and Peoples Rights (1981) which is a Regional Human Rights Instrument set to make sure that member states like Tanzania do recognize as well as observe Human Rights. For instance, under article 2 the charter states that every individual is entitled to enjoy rights and freedoms that are guaranteed in the African charter despite their differences of sex, race, color, religion, ethnicity, language, nationality or social origin. Article 3(1) and (2) provides that every individual does deserve to be treated equally before the law and get equal protection before the law. Article 4 provides that every human being deserve to be respected for his life and his integrity and no one should arbitrarily get deprived of this right. Article 5 provides that all human beings deserve the right to get respected for his dignity. Article 6 states that every person has the right to liberty and security of his person, and no one should be deprived this right unless proper legal procedures are adhered, hence no person may be arbitrary arrested or be detained. Similar emphasis has been provided in the International Covenant On Civil and Political Rights (1966) this international human rights instrument to provide the protection of civil and political rights of human beings. For example, under article 9(1) the covenant provides that everyone has the right to liberty and security, and no one should be deprived of these rights unless legal procedures adhere. Article 17(1) among other things the article provides that no one should unlawfully interfere with his privacy. Article 26 states that all human beings are equal before the law and deserve without any discrimination to get equal protection of the law. Therefore everyone following up with the issue of homosexuality in Tanzania must also get acquainted with these legal terrains.

And so, following this heavy campaign by Dar es Salaam Regional Commissioner, the Ministry of foreign affairs   issued an official statement almost a week after to the press stating that what the Regional commissioner is doing is his personal opinions and not the opinion of the Government, and later on Minister of home affairs also issued an official statement stating what the Regional commissioner is doing, it is his own opinion and not the position of the Government of Tanzania. The Minister of home affairs further urged that Homosexuals are protected by the constitution of the united republic of Tanzania, therefore, no person should be harassed just because of being a Homosexual, additionally, the Minister of Home affairs told Police officers not to be used in that campaign of witch-hunting Homosexuals. In the Parliament, at mid-November 2018 session a discussion on the state of homosexuality emerged following this saga, but it ended unclearly. In Tanzania due to article 55(1) and article 54(3) of the constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania of 1977 all Ministers are appointed by the President and their duties and functions are to assist and advise the President in exercising his powers.

Meanwhile, Human Rights Activists in Tanzania have – here and there -given their views, defending the rights including those of Homosexuals adding it is right time now to review laws which discriminate Homosexuals since those laws are outdated. While those opposing homosexuality activities in Tanzanian – mainly Christians, and Muslims claims that such practice is contrary to the teachings of their Holy books. There are those who oppose homosexuality in defense of African cultures, saying it is against African lifestyle.

While it can be presumed that probably it is a high time now to make a review of some laws in Tanzania (going to the extent of having a new constitution altogether?) so as to weigh them if they are still valid at this contemporary world of the 21st century because some of these laws were brought up in Tanzania during British colonial times. However, the reality is that majority of Tanzanians do not tolerate mostly gays and then next fewer lesbians in general and it is a threat that can be a danger if one is known to “practice” such activities in Tanzania. A person suspected or caught doing so faces ostracism at the family level and permanent discrimination by the society at large, as the majority of Tanzanians believes that gays and lesbianism is a ‘western culture’ brought to Africa to destroy good African culture, while Christians and Muslims consider it as an abhorrent, abomination sin. More so for Tanzanian political culture, it is a political dice with danger on the one hand – while being populism on another, for a Politician to seem either support or oppose homosexuality.

The irony is that the law against homosexuality itself was introduced from the very west, during its Victorian age when they conquered Africa and ruled it. More so the very Holy books Africans use today as “yardsticks” against homosexuality also came from, were brought by the very west  – the bible and Arabs (for the case of Koran) and are thus really not part of indigenous African tradition and culture, despite the reality that they have succeeded to superimpose and dominate the latter.

Also, it should be known that Tanzania has, since day one of its independence signed United Nations charters, and later even African charters…it is high time for the general public to know what is the content of those treaties that the leaders had signed on their behalf.

This Matter brings forth such questions as what really is an “African culture”, is it monolithic? what is “Western culture” and what is “modern culture” and what is a “Human culture”? what agenda is for “Human rights” and what are not? what are aspects of African culture that are not supposed to change, is homosexuality biological or habit acquired?

It is a sensitive topic Tanzanians are debating hotly this “triple heritage” dialectic. There is confusion that protecting rights of Homosexuals might be seen as encouraging homosexuality itself and that, anyone doing it ends up being judged as a homosexual or lesbian him / her self by association. Also, there is confusion as between what is “western” versus what is “modern” that goes all along even in terms of human rights. How secular in practice is Tanzania where religion mind is dominant?  Were there homosexuals in African cultures before penal codes were introduced by colonialism in Tanzania? and how were they treated in their societies vis – a – vis their respective “life rights” then, and in the eyes of the now…? is African culture homophobic because it is patriarchal? Does that explain somehow why lesbians are to a less extent informally tolerated (woman to themselves) while gays are not (how can a man be turned a woman?) as for the code against anal sex style between a man and a woman even if married, how can the Regional Commissioner practically enforce that? Surveillance device to each bedroom of adult / married Tanzanian? Should the government prescribe the acceptable “normal” sex position (which one?) as the only legitimate one as far as God/Religion morality goes? Can Zamadamu (Swahili for evolution theory) help explain if same-sex attraction is biological or habit-acquired?  Is there a need for Tanzania to come out with a bill of rights that clearly set areas where it’s no business for the government of the day to encroach on someone’s lifestyle based on his/her self-determination in this drama of life? Can Tanzania learn from other African countries and commonwealth countries grappling with a similar situation? What does the African charter on African bill of rights say on that?

Well as one old song by Johnny Nash (who also popularized Bob Marley’s “stir it up” before Bob was a super-star) goes “There are more questions than answers”, findings would be needed to get rational answers, empirically – arrived. Thank you.

Lucas is a Teacher, Historian, Lawyer, and an Advocate of the High Court in Tanzania.
Email- isamwaka01@gmail.com. +255754326296

Appendix I: Footnotes

[1] Teacher, Historian, Lawyer, and an Advocate of the High Court in Tanzania.

[2] Individual Publication Date: November 22, 2018: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/tanzania.

Appendix II: Citation Style Listing

American Medical Association (AMA): Mwakalonge I. On the Ongoing Campaign Witch-Hunt Against Homosexuals in Tanzania [Online].November 2018; 1(B). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/tanzania.

American Psychological Association (APA, 6th Edition, 2010): Mwakalonge, I. (2018, November 22). On the Ongoing Campaign Witch-Hunt Against Homosexuals in TanzaniaRetrieved from http://www.in-sightjournal.com/tanzania.

Brazilian National Standards (ABNT): MWAKALONGE, I. On the Ongoing Campaign Witch-Hunt Against Homosexuals in Tanzania African Freethinker. 1.B, November. 2018. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/tanzania>.

Chicago/Turabian, Author-Date (16th Edition): Mwakalonge, Isakwisa. 2018. “On the Ongoing Campaign Witch-Hunt Against Homosexuals in Tanzania.African Freethinker. 1.B. http://www.in-sightjournal.com/tanzania.

Chicago/Turabian, Humanities (16th Edition): Mwakalonge, Isakwisa “On the Ongoing Campaign Witch-Hunt Against Homosexuals in Tanzania.African Freethinker. 1.B (November 2018). http://www.in-sightjournal.com/tanzania.

Harvard: Mwakalonge, I. 2018, ‘On the Ongoing Campaign Witch-Hunt Against Homosexuals in Tanzania’, African Freethinker, vol. 1.B. Available from: <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/tanzania>.

Harvard, Australian: Mwakalonge, I. 2018, ‘On the Ongoing Campaign Witch-Hunt Against Homosexuals in Tanzania, African Freethinker, vol. 1.B., http://www.in-sightjournal.com/tanzania.

Modern Language Association (MLA, 7th Edition, 2009): Isakwisa Amanyisye Lucas Mwakalonge. “On the Ongoing Campaign Witch-Hunt Against Homosexuals in Tanzania.” African Freethinker 1.B (2018):November. 2018. Web. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/tanzania>.

Vancouver/ICMJE: Mwakalonge I. On the Ongoing Campaign Witch-Hunt Against Homosexuals in Tanzania [Internet]. (2018, November; 1(B). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/tanzania.

License and Copyright

License

In-Sight Publishing and African Freethinker by Scott Douglas Jacobsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.in-sightjournal.com.

Copyright

© Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and African Freethinker 2012-2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and African Freethinker with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.  All interviewees co-copyright their material and may disseminate for their independent purposes.

An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part One)

Interviewer: Scott Douglas Jacobsen

Numbering: Issue 18.A, Idea: Outliers & Outsiders (Part Fourteen)

Place of Publication: Langley, British Columbia, Canada

Title: In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal

Web Domain: http://www.in-sightjournal.com

Individual Publication Date: November 15, 2018

Issue Publication Date: January 1, 2019

Name of Publisher: In-Sight Publishing

Frequency: Three Times Per Year

Words: 1,749

ISSN 2369-6885

Abstract 

Blair T. Longley is the Party Leader for the Marijuana Party of Canada. He discusses: background; influence on development; and early involvements in activism and politics prior to the Marijuana Party of Canada.

Keywords: Blair T. Longley, Canadian Society, Cannabis, Marijuana Party of Canada.

An Interview with Blair T. Longley: Party Leader, Marijuana Party of Canada (Part One)[1],[2]

*Please see the footnotes, bibliography, and citation style listing after the interview.*

1. Scott Douglas Jacobsen: In terms of culture, family, geography, language, and religion/irreligion, what is your background?
Blair T. Longley: I was born on the barbaric fringe of the British Empire, i.e., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in 1950. I grew up in Dollarton, North Vancouver. In retrospect, it was sort of “frozen in history” when I was young. The natives had been genocidally wiped out by viral diseases, and then relegated to small reservations, many miles away from Dollarton. The area was only beginning to be developed when I was young. There were many miles of beaches and forests that I could explore around my home, where there were almost no other people. Those areas are developed now, such that it is no longer possible for me to go back “home.”
The community I grew up in was almost totally White Anglo Saxon Protestant (there were a few Catholics.) Up until the year 1971, when I was 21 years old, Dollarton had a clause in its property titles which explicitly stated that those properties could not be sold to anyone who was not Caucasian. Therefore, the elementary and high schools that I went to had zero “diversity,” as people would now think of that kind of multiculturalism. I grew up in a family that may be referred to as “third generation atheists,” inasmuch as for three generations nobody in my family had believed in any of the established religious dogmas.When I went through the academic and technical educations of the British Columbian schools systems I was taught to respect rational evidence of facts and logical arguments. In high school, I did best in science courses. Therefore, my primary ways of thinking were based on mathematical physics. My first philosophy was statistical materialism.

2. Jacobsen: How did this influence development?

Longley: When one pursues the prodigious progress made in mathematical physics, one learns about the history of scientific revolutions, whereby there were series of intellectual revolutions, and profound paradigms shifts. Those trends that follow from attempting to more seriously consider what mathematical physics is telling us about the “real” world. One finds that those more and more re-converge with ancient mysticism.  I have spent several decades pursuing those convergences between mathematical physics and mysticism, with particular emphasis upon attempting to reconcile physical science with political science.

3. Jacobsen: What were your early involvements in activism and politics prior to the Marijuana Party of Canada?

Longley: My first participation in registered political activities was going to the founding convention of the Green Party of Canada in Ottawa, in 1983. In 1984, I became a Green Party candidate in the General Federal Elections, in order to help the Green Party become a registered party under the Canada Elections Act. At that time, my main concern was the nuclear arms race between the USA and the USSR, which became quite insane during the 1980s, and reached its most insane point in 1986.

(Of course, now, that situation after getting somewhat better for a while, has now become worse than it has ever been before.) Back at that time, the Green Party was tending to become more mainstream, and therefore, my kinds of radical politics were not approved of by the more mainstream members of the Green Party. That ended up with my also being endorsed as a Rhinoceros Party candidate on the last day of the nomination period, which made national news, due to my becoming a Green Rhino.

During the 1984 General Federal Elections, one of the most important turning points in my life took place when I attended an election expenses seminar given by Elections Canada official, where the political contribution tax credit was explained. I realized the awesome potential of that tax credit, and spent the next few decades attempting to realize that potential. I became a registered agent of the Rhinoceros Party, which enabled me to work on using the tax credit, as political experiments that enabled me to build the factual basis for a court case against the government of Canada regarding the uses of political contribution funds.

From 1982 to 1987, I was publicly cultivating cannabis plants in university family housing gardens, first on SFU’s campus, and then on UBC’s campus. During 1986 I engaged in substantial correspondence with Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, and some of his other ministers, regarding the criminalization of cannabis. In 1987 I was growing several dozen marijuana plants in the center of the family housing garden, in order to gain standing to challenge the constitutional validity of the marijuana laws.

However, when I went to court, the RCMP witness, crown prosecutor, and judge, conspired to make deliberate errors in laws, so that they could summarily acquit me, and therefore, not have to bother to look at the evidence nor listen to the legal arguments that I had prepared for that case. In other words, that court case ended in a completely goofy way. Since then, it has been repeated, over and over again, that Canadian courts were too corrupt to engage in a proper Charter of Rights examination of the original purpose and subsequent effects of the laws that criminalized cannabis.

After my own efforts had resulted in clearly demonstrating that was going to be the case, I stopped doing any more activism on that topic, but rather, devoted all my time and energy, from 1988 to 2000, in working on my court case against the Canadian governments regarding the political contribution tax credit. After I finally won that case, by proving that the government had been arrogantly dishonest about the legal used of that tax credit, in 2000, I attempted to interest all the other registered political parties in adopting my ideas.

NONE of the other registered parties were willing to adopt my ideas regarding the possible uses of that tax credit, EXCEPT the newly registered Marijuana Party. Therefore, the reason that I became associated with the Marijuana Party is that it was the ONLY registered party that was willing to attempt to realize the full potential of the political contribution tax credit.

In 2004, the Canada Elections Laws were changed in ways which deliberately decimated the Marijuana Party. After the Marijuana Party had been effectively destroyed by those changes in the Elections Laws, I became Party Leader, because there was nobody else who was willing and able to do so at that time. I primarily did so in order to continue to work on the political contribution tax credit potential, by finding ways to work around the changes in the Elections Laws which summarily criminalized most of what the Marijuana Party had been successfully doing from 2000 to 2003.

(That is what I continue to do now through authorizing autonomous Marijuana Party Electoral District Associations.)  Becoming Party Leader enabled me to have another court case against the Canadian government regarding Elections Laws that made votes for big parties be worth about $2 per vote, per year, for the big political parties, while votes were worth nothing to smaller political parties. We originally won at trial, however, we lost under appeal in 2008, which effectively made sure that the Marijuana Party could not compete with the bigger political parties.

The big parties actually made money from participating in General Federal Elections, while the smaller parties went broke by attempting to do so. The Elections Laws are set up in every possible way to favour the big parties, while screwing the smaller parties. However, since the big parties also appoint the judges, the typical patterns are for the courts to uphold as constitutionally valid the laws regarding the funding of the political processes which accumulate to result in Canada NOT being a “free and democratic society,” but rather, being a runaway fascist plutocracy juggernaut. Overall, Canada is deteriorating from colonialism towards neofeudalism, while the vicious spirals of the funding of all facets of the political processes are the main factors driving that to happen…

4. Jacobsen: Thank you for the opportunity and your time, Mr. Longley.

Appendix I: Footnotes

[1] Party Leader, Marijuana Party of Canada.

[2] Individual Publication Date: November 15, 2018: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-one; Full Issue Publication Date: January 1, 2019: https://in-sightjournal.com/insight-issues/.

Appendix II: Citation Style Listing

American Medical Association (AMA): Jacobsen S. An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part One) [Online].November 2018; 18(A). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-one.

American Psychological Association (APA, 6th Edition, 2010): Jacobsen, S.D. (2018, November 15). An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part One)Retrieved from http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-one.

Brazilian National Standards (ABNT): JACOBSEN, S. An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part One). In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A, November. 2018. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-one>.

Chicago/Turabian, Author-Date (16th Edition): Jacobsen, Scott. 2018. “An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part One).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A. http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-one.

Chicago/Turabian, Humanities (16th Edition): Jacobsen, Scott “An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part One).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A (November 2018). http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-one.

Harvard: Jacobsen, S. 2018, ‘An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part One)In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal, vol. 18.A. Available from: <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-one>.

Harvard, Australian: Jacobsen, S. 2018, ‘An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part One)In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal, vol. 18.A., http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-one.

Modern Language Association (MLA, 7th Edition, 2009): Scott D. Jacobsen. “An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part One).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal 18.A (2018):November. 2018. Web. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-one>.

Vancouver/ICMJE: Jacobsen S. An Interview with Blair T. Longley (Part One) [Internet]. (2018, November; 18(A). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/longley-one.

License and Copyright

License

In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal by Scott Douglas Jacobsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.in-sightjournal.com.

Copyright

© Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal 2012-2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.  All interviewees co-copyright their interview material and may disseminate for their independent purposes.

An Interview with Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A. (First Class Hons.)

Interviewer: Scott Douglas Jacobsen

Numbering: Issue 18.A, Idea: Outliers & Outsiders (Part Fourteen)

Place of Publication: Langley, British Columbia, Canada

Title: In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal

Web Domain: http://www.in-sightjournal.com

Individual Publication Date: November 15, 2018

Issue Publication Date: January 1, 2019

Name of Publisher: In-Sight Publishing

Frequency: Three Times Per Year

Words: 1,457

ISSN 2369-6885

Abstract 

Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A. (First Class Hons.) is a doctoral candidate with some research into cyberbullying, transphobia, and homophobia. She discusses: cyberbullying; prevalence data; and transphobia and homophobia.

Keywords: Aynsley Pescitelli, cyberbullying, homophobia, transphobia.

An Interview with Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A. (First Class Hons.)[1],[2]

*Please see the footnotes, bibliography, and citation style listing after the interview.*

1. Scott Douglas Jacobsen: You work on cyberbullying. What defines it? 

Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A.: My interest in the topic has always been on the groups that are understudied or have not previously been given a voice in the research literature.  Both postsecondary students and LGBTQ+ persons fit into this research gap; the bulk of the work in this area continues to focus on elementary, middle, and high school populations, and students are examined in large-scale quantitative studies that either do not include LGBTQ+ students or include them as an afterthought or comparison point for non-LGBTQ+ individuals.

I was interested in adding rich, detailed, individual-level data about the experiences of LGBTQ+ postsecondary students to this area of research to examine how their experiences compared to younger samples and the existing limited information about postsecondary populations to hopefully start to fill that glaring gap in the literature.

2. Jacobsen: What ranges of prevalence exist throughout the world based on the best data available

Pescitelli: This is a tough question.  In terms of the LGBTQ+ experience specifically (and more explicitly in the postsecondary arena), there really is not enough research to provide a clear answer to this question.  There just has not been enough of a focus on LGBTQ+ students specifically, so incidence rates are either absent or tough to quantify due to missing data and problems with operationalization in large-scale datasets.

In terms of my own work I cannot really speak to this, since my study was a small-scale qualitative one and one of the criteria for inclusion was that participants had experienced cybervictimization.  So, everyone in my sample had been cyberbullied in one form or another since starting college or university.

In terms of the general postsecondary population, as Chantal mentioned at the book launch, the rates vary greatly from study to study based on definitions employed and other study characteristics (e.g. who was sampled, what the research questions were, time of victimization (lifetime vs within a specified time), etc).

Even within the book, the rates vary greatly from chapter to chapter (ranging from 12.5% in the Chilean sample to over 50% in the chapter from France; other authors found rates somewhere in between).  It certainly appears to be an issue that continues beyond secondary school, regardless of location, but the degree of cyberbullying varies quite a bit throughout the world (at least in terms of the studies conducted to date).

3. Jacobsen: What defines transphobia and homophobia? Why focus on these topics within the research on cyberbullying, as this seems niche subject matter?

Pescitelli: The definitions I employed in my study were as follows:

Homophobia is often referred to as a “fear or hatred or homosexuality and gays and lesbians in general” (Pickett, 2009, p. 93).  It is also often used to explain orientation-based discrimination experienced by bisexual, pansexual, and questioning individuals (Blackburn, 2012; Conoley, 2008; Weiss, 2003).

While homosexuality and bisexuality relate to sexual orientation, transgender relates to gender roles and identities (Nagoshi et al., 2008).  Transgender is likely often subsumed under the wider LGB category because it has only been distinguished from homosexuality within the past century (Pickett, 2009; Weiss, 2003).  Transphobia is described as “fear and/or emotional disgust towards individuals who do not conform to society’s gender expectations” (Watjen & Mitchell, 2013, p. 135).

I think it is important to focus on populations that are understudied or have not previously been afforded research attention.  I would not personally describe it as a niche, but I can understand it appears as such.   The research that does exist points to LGBTQ+ individuals experiencing higher than average rates of both in-person and cyberbullying in postsecondary settings.

So that was what initially drew me to the research area; while this group may be a small one (depending on the institution or location), existing research at all levels of education indicated that this group experienced higher rates of online victimization when compared to their non-LGBTQ+ peers.

So, I wondered why, despite the persistence of this finding, there continued to be such a dearth of research in the area.  Most of the studies that included LGBTQ+ students did so in what felt like an ad hoc fashion (e.g. they noticed there was a difference in experiences, but the sample of students within that group was too small for them to unpack those differences), where the difference was acknowledged but not expanded upon.

Or it was used as a simple comparison point among a large sample of students but, again, not really explained or properly unpacked.  This led me to wonder what similarities and differences existed, and to want to focus an in-depth study on this under-researched group so that I could perhaps start to expand on some of the earlier findings that had little explanatory value

While I was not able to comment on overall incidence rates due to my small sample with a qualitative focus, I was able to learn a lot about the individuals I interviewed and their recent and historical experiences with homophobia and/or transphobia in online settings.  They had all experienced cyberbullying of this nature at very high rates and in various locations.

This was not a new experience to any of them; while they continued to experience online bullying frequently, they also had experienced such victimization prior to starting their postsecondary studies.  As I mentioned when we chatted in person, the forms of cyberbullying (e.g. modes of perpetration, location of bullying) did not seem to differ a great deal from non-LGBTQ+ individuals studied in related research, but there were some differences in the focus of the bullying, the perceived or known motives for the bullying, and some of the ways the bullying was experienced.

So certainly, many similarities, but some unique factors that lead me to believe that a one-size-fits-all approach to combating cyberbullying might not work to eliminate all instances of online homophobia and transphobia.  So, I think more research needs to be conducted with various groups (including members of the LBGTQ+ community) to determine if there are specialized needs or differences in the ways they experience online victimization if such actions are ever to be fully addressed.

4. Jacobsen: Thank you for the opportunity and your time, Aynsley.

Appendix I: Footnotes

[1] Ph.D. Candidate, Criminology, Simon Fraser University.

[2] Individual Publication Date: November 15, 2018: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/pescitelli; Full Issue Publication Date: January 1, 2019: https://in-sightjournal.com/insight-issues/.

Appendix II: Citation Style Listing

American Medical Association (AMA): Jacobsen S. An Interview with Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A. (First Class Hons.) [Online].November 2018; 18(A). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/pescitelli.

American Psychological Association (APA, 6th Edition, 2010): Jacobsen, S.D. (2018, November 15). An Interview with Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A. (First Class Hons.)Retrieved from http://www.in-sightjournal.com/pescitelli.

Brazilian National Standards (ABNT): JACOBSEN, S. An Interview with Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A. (First Class Hons.). In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A, November. 2018. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/pescitelli>.

Chicago/Turabian, Author-Date (16th Edition): Jacobsen, Scott. 2018. “An Interview with Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A. (First Class Hons.).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A. http://www.in-sightjournal.com/pescitelli.

Chicago/Turabian, Humanities (16th Edition): Jacobsen, Scott “An Interview with Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A. (First Class Hons.).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A (November 2018). http://www.in-sightjournal.com/pescitelli.

Harvard: Jacobsen, S. 2018, ‘An Interview with Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A. (First Class Hons.)In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal, vol. 18.A. Available from: <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/pescitelli>.

Harvard, Australian: Jacobsen, S. 2018, ‘An Interview with Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A. (First Class Hons.)In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal, vol. 18.A., http://www.in-sightjournal.com/pescitelli.

Modern Language Association (MLA, 7th Edition, 2009): Scott D. Jacobsen. “An Interview with Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A. (First Class Hons.).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal 18.A (2018):November. 2018. Web. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/pescitelli>.

Vancouver/ICMJE: Jacobsen S. An Interview with Aynsley Pescitelli M.A., B.A. (First Class Hons.) [Internet]. (2018, November; 18(A). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/pescitelli.

License and Copyright

License

In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal by Scott Douglas Jacobsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.in-sightjournal.com.

Copyright

© Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal 2012-2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.  All interviewees co-copyright their interview material and may disseminate for their independent purposes.

What is in a Name? Towards Common Identity Within Diversity of Nonbelievers

Author: Nsajigwa I Mwasokwa (Nsajigwa Nsa’Sam)

Numbering: Issue 1.B, Idea: African Freethinking

Place of Publication: Langley, British Columbia, Canada

Title: African Freethinker

Web Domain: http://www.in-sightjournal.com

Individual Publication Date: November 8, 2018

Issue Publication Date: TBD

Name of Publisher: In-Sight Publishing

Frequency: Three Times Per Year

Words: 1,460

ISSN 2369-6885

Keywords: identity, name, nonbelievers, Nsajigwa I Mwasokwa, Nsajigwa Nsa’sam.

What is in a Name? Towards Common Identity Within Diversity of Nonbelievers[1],[2],[3]

New Doc 3_3

I am writing this in response to Levi Fragell’s call for the Humanist movement to strive for the common identity the world over. Elder Levi is the current leader, President (2002) of the International Humanist Ethical Union, an organization uniting “nonbelievers” of the world.

What are they? These are individuals who have a naturalistic worldview/life-stance, instead of (most often having rejected) a supernatural metaphysical one. While I agree with his call, I also have found it timely to inform of what is in a name that we have chosen to identify with, for our nascent Humanist organization in Tanzania.

Having evolved to be an Ethical Humanist Nontheist, to me today the question of existence or none of God comes down to evidence of who created him/her/it. This is the gist of the equation. While Theists would say God is self – created, that he/she/it was there from the beginning of time (yet they would deny totally any possibility of nature by itself being there from the beginning) I see it that, it is human beings, MAN who has created God, so much in Ludwig Feuerbach’s line of thinking..!
That I am aware there is three distinctions of Humanism: – Secular, Religious and Ethical humanism, each having certain IMPLICATION. It is important to pay attention to the public implication of the words used, especially so to a movement seeking to appeal and inspire the given populace…

What’s in a name? Each name has a meaning or portrays one. That is so much with many cultures in Africa. Names are given because of events associated. Though of course there has also been blind copying, imitating of western names, likewise Arabic…

New Doc 4_3

Nevertheless, within the African “triple heritage” line, some parents and Nations thought it worthwhile to give two names. One traditional, the other western alias Christian/biblical or Islamic – Arabic. I wish to continue with this tradition, yet footing it on the Humanistic heritage of each “monad” aspect of triple heritage…thus an African name Abapaanja (or Obierika), the Islamic/Arabic  heritage of the Mutazilites and the western (here classic Greece to Renaissance heritage replacing Christianity)
Enters the reality of marketability…the name must be inspiring, appealing, attracting, easy to identify with and positively provocative…That Humanist tradition has several brand names of its identity…Humanism itself, Skepticism, Atheism, Agnosticism, Rationalism, Materialism, Deism, Epicureanism, Nontheism, Unitarianism, Nonbeliever, Non-religious, Freethinking etc.

Freethinking, the last one qualifies best in Tanzania…why…throughout our modern history; we have been a people in search of FREEDOM…Collectively and now as individuals. Freedom from many chains & several bondages. Then came the realization that freedom starts with that of the mind…free mind, and fearless one. Many calls have been made for Africans to emancipate ourselves from mental slavery and colonial mentality. Thus comes the concept of “independent thinking”. This had far-reaching consequences but had limited itself in the hermeneutical reinterpretation of the scriptures and history, replacement of icons (from white ones to black) etc. The next stage in the line ought to be critical questioning of the Gods themselves altogether! Let come freethinking…making a complete breakaway from religion or rather Gods that in fact have never existed in the first place..!

New Doc 3_2

The word “Freethinker” has a strong appeal, provocative whatever it has been used here. People would ask what’s your religion? You would answer I am a freethinker gone beyond religion..! This provokes as it amazes. It means you think, think freely! You reflect, analyze, use your brain and don’t mere believe..!

This has the immediate effect of making them re-examine what you say/what you argue, at least for the moment. They take you seriously, and if you are known to be Ethical, that makes them interested even further…

“A freethinker has gone beyond religion and is living by a golden rule”..!

Then the tradition….Aba-paanja…these were the non-believers “the outsiders” in Ngonde – Nyakyusa culture/tradition. It is the evidence that in every age, generation and culture, there are always individuals who are part of that culture but becomes rationalistic to challenge some aspects of that very culture, rebels within. So it was with traditional African too, not everyone was a conformist..!

Nigerian great writer one Chinua Achebe had one such character (named Obierika) in his great book, Things fall apart. Obierika symbolized nonconformist within African traditions itself..!

Conclusion: which is the appropriate term? Humanism has both sides of coin by its implication to the populace. The positive side, it implies treating each other humanely. This has a strong appeal. Yet it could be interpreted as “MAN worship”. But man is imperfect, unworthy of worship; people would wish to submit to something infallible (Allah)..!

Again Humanism was a social philosophical ideology in nearby Zambia, pursued by its founder father there. Its experimentation failed. So people might assume you are a “die-hard” follower of Kenneth Kaunda’s failed ideology.

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Atheism, likewise Secularism here would be associated with “Godless Communism”…equally a failed system that was tyrannical…forcing people to abandon religions. It was undemocratic, more so lacking in individual liberty. Unfortunately, it substituted the worship of God to worship of Ideology, as propagated one way (only way!) by the s/elect few of the Kremlin.

The term “Philosophy” is a likely candidate. It is a respectable one, looked with reverence. It implies someone who thinks so deep and become wise in arguments. Its problem is it being associated with being a highly educated – Academic – to the level of Ph.D. This excludes the naturally born self-taught thinkers without degrees. Think this way that Socrates, David Hume and J J Rousseau could have been excluded..!

In between, late Philosopher Prof Paul Kurtz – an eminent thinker & Leader & Activist for Freethinking and Skepticism, introduced the term “Eupraxsophy” to rescue philosophy back to its original meaning – the theory that goes with praxis. However, it hasn’t caught fire thus far. It awaits the future..!

“Freethinking” stand out the best. It is a process…to think…freely…and fearlessly…
It has strong appeal because it connotes freedom of the mind, something that Africans yearns for, collectively and more so as Individuals.

Thanks, …it’s an unpublished work of 2002, published now the first time in 2018.
PS: While the central argument of the article stands, however things have changed since. Nowadays, markedly from 2012 with the rise of a new generation of nonbelievers, the terms “Atheism” and “Secular Humanism” have become the preferred ones. So be it..!

Appendix I: Footnotes

[1] Founder, Jichojipya/ThinkAnew.

[2] Individual Publication Date: November 8, 2018: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/nonbelievers.

[3] Image Credits: Nsajigwa I Mwasokwa (Nsajigwa Nsa’sam).

Appendix II: Citation Style Listing

American Medical Association (AMA): Mwasokwa N. What is in a Name? Towards Common Identity Within Diversity of Nonbelievers [Online].November 2018; 1(B). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/nonbelievers.

American Psychological Association (APA, 6th Edition, 2010): Mwasokwa, N. (2018, November 8). What is in a Name? Towards Common Identity Within Diversity of NonbelieversRetrieved from http://www.in-sightjournal.com/nonbelievers.

Brazilian National Standards (ABNT): MWASOKWA, N. What is in a Name? Towards Common Identity Within Diversity of Nonbelievers African Freethinker. 1.B, November. 2018. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/nonbelievers>.

Chicago/Turabian, Author-Date (16th Edition): Mwasokwa, Nsajigwa. 2018. “What is in a Name? Towards Common Identity Within Diversity of Nonbelievers.African Freethinker. 1.B. http://www.in-sightjournal.com/nonbelievers.

Chicago/Turabian, Humanities (16th Edition): Mwasokwa, Nsajigwa “What is in a Name? Towards Common Identity Within Diversity of Nonbelievers.African Freethinker. 1.B (November 2018). http://www.in-sightjournal.com/nonbelievers.

Harvard: Mwasokwa, N. 2018, ‘What is in a Name? Towards Common Identity Within Diversity of Nonbelievers, African Freethinker, vol. 1.B. Available from: <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/nonbelievers>.

Harvard, Australian: Mwasokwa, N. 2018, ‘What is in a Name? Towards Common Identity Within Diversity of Nonbelievers, African Freethinker, vol. 1.B., http://www.in-sightjournal.com/nonbelievers.

Modern Language Association (MLA, 7th Edition, 2009): Nsajigwa I Mwasokwa. “What is in a Name? Towards Common Identity Within Diversity of Nonbelievers.” African Freethinker 1.B (2018):November. 2018. Web. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/nonbelievers>.

Vancouver/ICMJE: Mwasokwa N. What is in a Name? Towards Common Identity Within Diversity of Nonbelievers [Internet]. (2018, November; 1(B). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/nonbelievers.

License and Copyright

License

In-Sight Publishing and African Freethinker by Scott Douglas Jacobsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.in-sightjournal.com.

Copyright

© Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and African Freethinker 2012-2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and African Freethinker with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.  All interviewees co-copyright their material and may disseminate for their independent purposes.

An Interview with Catherine Broomfield (Part Two)

Interviewer: Scott Douglas Jacobsen

Numbering: Issue 18.A, Idea: Outliers & Outsiders (Part Fourteen)

Place of Publication: Langley, British Columbia, Canada

Title: In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal

Web Domain: http://www.in-sightjournal.com

Individual Publication Date: November 8, 2018

Issue Publication Date: January 1, 2019

Name of Publisher: In-Sight Publishing

Frequency: Three Times Per Year

Words: 2,272

ISSN 2369-6885

Abstract 

Catherine Broomfield is the Executive Director of iHuman Youth Society. She discusses: the narratives of iHuman; belief systems and ways of life; initiatives for 2018/19; ways to become involved; and other organizations.

Keywords: Catherine Broomfield, Executive Director, iHuman Youth Society, Indigenous, youth.

An Interview with Catherine Broomfield: Executive Director, iHuman Youth Society (Part Two)[1],[2]

*Please see the footnotes, bibliography, and citation style listing after the interview.*

1. Scott Douglas Jacobsen: Before I touch on the topic of belonging, I have observed something in life. People who have the self-worth void. That perpetual feeling of lack. One group will go into the path of not really knowing what to do with themselves and their negative feelings.

Another group become super high achievers. But they hit a wall. Because this stops working in terms of dealing with the fundamental emotional and self-esteem issues that they might be harbouring. It is a reaction as a driver, but an unhealthy driver.

Does that path come forward in narratives through iHuman or elsewhere?

Broomfield: Honestly, I can only speak to observing the youth here, not those who do not come here. There is an observation that some people are able to use their early life as a motivator. Yet, that still has its limits. I think that’s true.

There are so many barriers, deficits, and challenges that the young people at iHuman come to us with; that’s why they come to iHuman is actually the belonging, which is expressed by their peers, and out in the community.

It is our street credibility. It is the word of mouth to say, “Hey, come here. I found a place where it is safe. People know my name. They know what I’m up to. Let me introduce you to iHuman.” Maybe, the belonging is the first route to being at iHuman and to us being given the gift of trust by the youth.

Trust is so invaluable.  It is risky to be at an organization, to share your story, acknowledge that you need help.  At iHuman, they recognize peers’ similarities in the traumas that they’ve faced. Also, their experience of being somewhere safe is in some ways unnerving.

iHuman is an experience in belonging. It is a gateway in. We have a guiding principle: we are relational. The relationship with the youth is the driver of the organization. It is not something that we compromise on. Therefore, we do things differently.

We look to the youth to tell us, “How would you solve the problem? How would you do it?” We build what they want us to build. For example, the way in which a meeting, sharing your story can feel safe and so on.

2. Jacobsen: Youth live in a context with parents and grandparents with trauma. That trauma coming from formal institutions within a nation. Those, basically, get passed on as avoidance stories, “Do not get involved in that institution. Distrust it.”

You mentioned earlier on the Residential schools as well as the ‘60s scoop. With regards to the Residential school system, it is 150,000 kids for over a century. It was both the mandate of the Government of Canada and the Christian religious sects in the country.

I know there’s an admixture now. Because I note that there are Indigenous spiritual beliefs around Creator and creation. There are also Indigenous Christian beliefs. It is a new phenomenon. But it is a certain form of reconciliation.

There are new Native American and Indigenous theologians cropping up, who work to reconcile the Indigenous spiritual beliefs and their Christianity. There are others who reject the Indigenous spiritual beliefs and something enforced through family lineage with Christian belief heritage.

So, youth, not necessarily a belief in a Creator or not – Indigenous or Christian – but a kind of cultural milieu that comes with both, coming in without a belief in either of those.

Do you try to bring back some of those beliefs or work with the youth where they’re at? They don’t want that belief system in their manner of being, in their way of life, moving into the future.

Broomfield: We work from a place of where those youths are at. Not only in the spiritual sense but holistically, “Where are they at emotionally? Where are they at intellectually? Where are they socially?” We are providing a space for that exploration, those realizations, or expressions of needs to be shared.

From that, we are individualizing an approach for the young person, which may include our creative studios and spaces that we have. It would be both from an art as therapy approach or art as an expression for creativity.

It could also be that the young person is interested in our caring services, which would be more focus on the basic needs, e.g., mental health working in partnership with the local health unit that comes and works with the social workers.

Or the other way we weave all this together is through the authenticity pillar of our portfolio. We, as we say, “Keep it real.” It could be from a cultural safety perspective. We are offering to the young person an opening to reconnect and re-identify with their culture.

However, [Indigenous cultural opportunities] is not something that we actively offer because we are a non-Indigenous organization working primarily with Indigenious young people.  We invite exploration through role-modelling. It is through the youth who will identify, acknowledge, or ask questions to be able to learn and to understand, to talk things through.

Because you’re right.

There could be a mix of shame, guilt, resentment, exclusion. There are many layers there. It, certainly, isn’t something that can be generalized. That every person comes to that question in a different way. They will seek out the answers in a different way.

We are here to encourage or support or provide something if we can; if not, then that’s the need for a provision of a referral in order to help this young person find answers.

3. Jacobsen: Moving into 2018/19, what are some of the initiatives that you’re hoping to build on or found for iHuman?

Broomfield: We have recently gone through a weeklong closure at iHuman. The youth acknowledged that we need some training. We spent some time looking at the values and principles. We have not examined them, since 23/24 years ago. We wanted to examine them.

Do these still fit for us? We have trained around attachment theory and how this may manifest in behaviours that we see in youth, and in us as staff because we’re are fallible humans too. We have trigger points and so on.

How can we recognize when we cross that boundary of being here as an advocate to a young person versus satisfying our own ego or some other need?

It has to be about what we do for the kids and what they need. One of the things that we are looking to continue out of the week is implementing a review of our entire programming structure using social design and how the outcomes we’re after can be implemented in the best possible way in order to get to those outcomes.

Something that we also learned and are exploring is Principles Focused Evaluation. How can we use the principles of the organization to evaluate the quality of the impact on young people and to share the story? For the next few years, we will look under the rocks of what we do: is it useful? Does it honour the youth and our principles?

It is to evaluate ourselves and make ourselves efficient. It is to get some funders and resource streams to see what we do here is unique and provides for young people who come here. To understand the value and appreciate how transformative it is that these young people attain goals that they have.

That is the aim of us being here. Society has already invested millions of dollars in each of these children/youth: education, the court system, police, and so on. All these institutional structures are pouring money. But that is a model about the negative and the punitive approach.

We are a strengths-based approach. What are the gifts this person has, if they can see it, they can go back to the sense of purpose and worth? They make the journey with self-affirmation rather than some outside source saying, “You’re only good enough for this.” ‘This’ being jail, incarceration of some other kind, wandering the streets homeless or dead.

There is so much that these young people have to share if given the opportunity. They can turn down a different path and then have a different outcome. They are contributing to reconciliation in a lived way. They can have healthy families with their kids and break the cycle.

The violence and intimate partner violence and these things; it starts with giving young people a platform where they can work on some things while having role models.

4. Jacobsen: What are some ways to be involved with iHuman?

Broomfield: We have opportunities for volunteers, champions out in the community. We are selective. Because we want to make sure safe people come here, for the volunteers and the youth. We have board positions available, staff positions available, and so on.

We need to be sure people connected to iHuman know where these young people are coming from. What brought them to this situation? There are structures and institutions in society that have helped create this situation. So, it is understanding that.

It is being aware, fundamentally, that there are things wrong in society and communities. People informing themselves about our national history around the genocide of the Indigenous people. Our failure in honouring the treaties that were signed. It is educating yourself about that.

That is a start. If you know, it will be less likely to happen again. That, in itself, will be positive.

5. Jacobsen: Any other organizations? Also, any books or authors who write on this topic for a lay public in a clear, concise but educated way?

Broomfield: Any organization that is doing good work. That fits with your values; you can align with them. That is a good use of anyone’s time to support in the community. In terms of writers and researchers, I think there are a number of Indigenous writers, who we can look to and their stories and narratives.

Richard Wagamese is an author I’d recommend especially the book “One Story. One Song”.  “Speaking my Truth: Reflections on Reconciliation & Residential School” is a collection of stories well worth reading.

Also, there are a couple of textbooks that touch on relevant aspects to iHuman’s work.  A text was written by a colleague, Peter Smyth “Working with High-Risk Youth: A Relationship-based Practice Framework”.

While I don’t like or use the term “high-risk youth” because it isn’t the youth that is high-risk it’s their behaviours, their choices, their associates and networks; the book is descriptive of this demographic or this population.

Peter has worked within the sector for many years – he knows what he’s talking about. The book is trauma-informed and strengths-based.  Another is “Learning Social Literacy” by Joyce Bellous & Jean Clinton.

Anything by Brené Brown – I especially like “Daring Greatly: How the Courage to Be Vulnerable Transforms the Way We Live, Love, Parent, and Lead”.

6. Jacobsen: Thank you very much for your time, Catherine.

Broomfield: Thank you, Scott. I appreciate our conversation. Usually, it is not the case where you get reciprocal conversation. I appreciate that. Thank you, too.

Appendix I: Footnotes

[1] Executive Director, iHuman Youth Society.

[2] Individual Publication Date: November 8, 2018: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/broomfield-two; Full Issue Publication Date: January 1, 2019: https://in-sightjournal.com/insight-issues/.

Appendix II: Citation Style Listing

American Medical Association (AMA): Jacobsen S. An Interview with Catherine Broomfield (Part Two) [Online].November 2018; 18(A). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/broomfield-two.

American Psychological Association (APA, 6th Edition, 2010): Jacobsen, S.D. (2018, November 8). An Interview with Catherine Broomfield (Part Two)Retrieved from http://www.in-sightjournal.com/broomfield-two.

Brazilian National Standards (ABNT): JACOBSEN, S. An Interview with Catherine Broomfield (Part Two). In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A, November. 2018. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/broomfield-two>.

Chicago/Turabian, Author-Date (16th Edition): Jacobsen, Scott. 2018. “An Interview with Catherine Broomfield (Part Two).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A. http://www.in-sightjournal.com/broomfield-two.

Chicago/Turabian, Humanities (16th Edition): Jacobsen, Scott “An Interview with Catherine Broomfield (Part Two).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal. 18.A (November 2018). http://www.in-sightjournal.com/broomfield-two.

Harvard: Jacobsen, S. 2018, ‘An Interview with Catherine Broomfield (Part Two)In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal, vol. 18.A. Available from: <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/broomfield-two>.

Harvard, Australian: Jacobsen, S. 2018, ‘An Interview with Catherine Broomfield (Part Two)In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal, vol. 18.A., http://www.in-sightjournal.com/broomfield-two.

Modern Language Association (MLA, 7th Edition, 2009): Scott D. Jacobsen. “An Interview with Catherine Broomfield (Part Two).” In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal 18.A (2018):November. 2018. Web. <http://www.in-sightjournal.com/broomfield-two>.

Vancouver/ICMJE: Jacobsen S. An Interview with Catherine Broomfield (Part Two) [Internet]. (2018, November; 18(A). Available from: http://www.in-sightjournal.com/broomfield-two.

License and Copyright

License

In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal by Scott Douglas Jacobsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at www.in-sightjournal.com.

Copyright

© Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal 2012-2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Scott Douglas Jacobsen, and In-Sight Publishing and In-Sight: Independent Interview-Based Journal with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.  All interviewees co-copyright their interview material and may disseminate for their independent purposes.

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